Types of Network Topology – Network Topology | Computer And IT Applications

Types of Network Topology
Network Topology | Computer And IT Applications
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Management Notes.

Network topology refers to the physical layout or geographical orientation and the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer and other devices in a network.The various types of network topologies are as follows:

  • Bus Topology
  • Ring Topology
  • Star Topology
  • Tree Topology
  • Mesh Topology

  • Bus Topology

    In bus topology,each node is connected to a single cable by the help of interface connectors. This central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as the bus (thus the name). A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the intended recipient.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Low installation cost and easy to install and maintain. 1. If there is a break in the main cable , then the entire network shuts down.
2. Traffic Network is low. 2. Difficult in identifying the problem if the entire network shuts down.
3. More flexible and easy to add new nodes. 3. Terminators are required at the both ends of the backbone cable.

  • Ring Topology

    In a ring topology,all the devices on the LAN are connected in a close loop or a ring.It doesnot has any end point and all the messages are transmitted in one direction that is clockwise or anti-clockwise. When one node sends data to another, the data passes through each intermediate node on the ring until it reaches its destination.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Works well where there is no central site computer system.  1.Any failure in communication path or node causes failure of whole network.
2. Less chance of data transfer because data travel in one direction.  2. Configuration of network is difficult.
 3.Equal access facility for every computer.  3. Communication delay is directly proportional to the number of nodes in the network ie;the addition of new node increases the communication delay

  • Star Topology

    In star topology, there is a central controlling hub or device from which all other computers radiate. So it can be said that every computer is indirectly connected to every other node with the help of the hub. If we need to send information from one node to another then the information must pass through the central controlling device which in turn interprets the address and sends the information approximately to the destination node.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Easy to install as well as easy to detect faults and to remove parts. 1. Installation cost is high as it requires lots of cables than in linear topology.
2. High data transmission is possible. 2. Failure in hub or concentrator leads to the failure of the nodes attached to it.
3. Failure in any computer does not affect  the rest of the network. 3. Difficult  to expand.

  • Tree Topology

    In tree topology, multiple star topologies are together integrated onto a bus.In its simplest from only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the “root” of the tree of devices.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Easy to add new branches to it. 1. Most difficult  to configure and wire than other topologies.
2. Supported by several hardware and software vendors. 2. Less reliable.
3. Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. 3. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.

  • Mesh Topology

    In mesh topology, every device connect to every other by a communication cable.The control is distributed to each node deciding its communication priorities.Unlike other topologies messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination.

Advantages Disadvantages
1.Reliable because any link failure will affect only direct communication  between the nodes connected by that link. 1. More expensive network from the point of view of link cost.
2. Communication is very fast between two nodes. 2. Difficult in reconfiguration.
3. Failure of device does not affect the data transmission to the destination device. 3. Difficult to install/setup.

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