Looking for the answer to the question below related to Management?
______ occurs when we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait.
|A. The recency effect|
B. A self-fulfilling prophecy
C. Fundamental attribution error
D. Self-serving bias
E. The halo effect
The Correct Answer Is:
- E. The halo effect
The correct answer to the question is E. The Halo Effect. Let’s delve into why the Halo Effect is the appropriate choice and then explore why the other options are not correct.
- The Halo Effect:
The Halo Effect is a cognitive bias that occurs when we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait, which then influences our perception of their overall character or abilities. This single positive trait, or “halo,” casts a favorable light on the person, leading us to assume that they possess other positive qualities, even if we have little or no evidence to support such assumptions.
In other words, the Halo Effect leads to a biased and overly positive overall impression of a person based on one admirable trait.
For example, if someone is exceptionally attractive, we may unconsciously assume that they are also intelligent, kind, and talented, even if we have no information about these other attributes. This cognitive bias can lead to inaccurate judgments and assessments of people.
Now, let’s discuss why the other options are not correct:
- The Recency Effect (Option A):
The Recency Effect is a cognitive bias that influences our memory and perception. It refers to the phenomenon where people tend to remember and give more importance to the most recent information or events they’ve encountered.
This bias is not related to forming impressions based on a single trait but rather pertains to the order in which information is presented and remembered. Therefore, Option A, the Recency Effect, is not the correct answer to the question.
- A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Option B):
A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person’s belief or expectation about a future event or outcome influences their behavior in a way that makes the expected outcome more likely to occur. It involves a person’s actions aligning with their initial belief, ultimately leading to the predicted result.
While a self-fulfilling prophecy can influence how we perceive others, it is not about forming an initial impression based on a single trait. Instead, it involves a cycle of belief, behavior, and outcome. Therefore, Option B, a self-fulfilling prophecy, is not the correct answer to the question.
- Fundamental Attribution Error (Option C):
The Fundamental Attribution Error is a cognitive bias that involves attributing people’s behavior to their internal characteristics (such as personality or disposition) rather than considering external factors (such as the situation or context).
It’s the tendency to overestimate the role of personal traits and underestimate the influence of the environment when explaining others’ actions. While this bias is related to judgments about people, it does not specifically pertain to forming impressions based on a single trait. Therefore, Option C, the Fundamental Attribution Error, is not the correct answer to the question.
- Self-Serving Bias (Option D):
The Self-Serving Bias is a cognitive bias in which individuals attribute positive outcomes to their own internal qualities (such as skill or effort) while attributing negative outcomes to external factors (such as bad luck or circumstances).
This bias is about how individuals perceive and explain their own behavior and outcomes, rather than how they form impressions of others based on single traits. Therefore, Option D, the Self-Serving Bias, is not the correct answer to the question.
In summary, the Halo Effect (Option E) is the correct answer because it accurately describes the cognitive bias in which we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait, leading us to assume other positive qualities about them. The other options (A, B, C, and D) do not relate directly to forming impressions based on a single trait and, therefore, are not correct in the context of this question.