Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

______________ is an activity-oriented approach.

______________ is an activity-oriented approach.



The Correct Answer Is:

  • A. CPM

The correct answer is A, CPM (Critical Path Method), which is an activity-oriented approach to project management. Let’s explore in detail why CPM is the correct answer and why the other options (B, C, and D) are not.

Option A:

CPM (Critical Path Method) CPM, or the Critical Path Method, is an activity-oriented approach to project management. It is widely used for planning, scheduling, and managing complex projects.

CPM focuses on breaking down a project into individual activities or tasks, determining their dependencies, estimating their durations, and identifying the critical path—the sequence of activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project. Key points to consider:


CPM places a strong emphasis on the identification and sequencing of individual activities. Each activity is defined, including its duration and dependencies with other activities. This allows for a granular understanding of the project’s timeline and resource requirements.

Dependency Analysis:

CPM relies on the identification of dependencies between activities, which can be categorized as finish-to-start, start-to-start, finish-to-finish, or start-to-finish. These dependencies determine the sequence in which activities must be executed.

Critical Path:

The critical path in CPM is the longest path through the project network, representing the minimum time required to complete the project. Activities on the critical path have no slack or float, meaning any delay in these activities will directly impact the project’s completion date.

Timeline Management:

CPM allows project managers to create a project schedule that identifies the start and finish dates for each activity. It also provides insights into potential project delays and allows for the allocation of resources to meet project deadlines.

Option B:

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) PERT, or the Program Evaluation and Review Technique, is another project management approach, but it is not activity-oriented in the same way that CPM is.

PERT focuses on probabilistic time estimation and risk analysis. While it considers the sequencing of activities, it does not emphasize the detailed planning and scheduling of individual activities to the same extent as CPM. Key points to consider:

Probabilistic Time Estimates:

PERT uses three time estimates for each activity—optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely—and calculates expected activity durations based on a weighted average. This approach accounts for uncertainties in project timelines.

Network Analysis:

PERT uses network diagrams to represent the sequence of activities and their dependencies. However, the focus is more on analyzing the entire project network for risks and uncertainties.

Risk Management:

PERT places a strong emphasis on identifying and managing risks within a project. It is particularly suitable for projects with a high degree of uncertainty.

Float and Slack:

Unlike CPM, PERT introduces the concept of float or slack for activities, allowing for a certain level of flexibility in scheduling.

Option C:

GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique) GERT, or the Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique, is a project management method that extends PERT. It allows for more complex modeling of activities and events within a project. While it is related to project management, GERT is not primarily an activity-oriented approach like CPM. Key points to consider:


GERT focuses on modeling events and their relationships within a project. It allows for more complex event-driven scenarios, such as conditional branching and loops.


GERT is designed to handle projects with uncertain or variable activity durations and sequences. It is particularly useful for projects with a high level of uncertainty and where events can trigger different paths.

Conditional Dependencies:

GERT allows for modeling conditional dependencies between activities and events, making it suitable for projects with decision points and multiple possible outcomes.


GERT is more complex to implement and analyze compared to CPM, which is often preferred for projects with well-defined activities and sequences.

Option D:

WASP (Weighted Average Scheduling Procedure) WASP, or Weighted Average Scheduling Procedure, is not a widely recognized project management method or approach. It is not an activity-oriented approach like CPM, and information about its specific principles and methodologies is limited. It does not have the same level of recognition or adoption as CPM, PERT, or GERT.

In summary, CPM (Critical Path Method) is an activity-oriented approach to project management that focuses on breaking down a project into individual activities, determining their dependencies, and creating a detailed schedule.

PERT and GERT are related project management methods, but they have different emphases, such as probabilistic time estimation and event-driven modeling, respectively.

WASP is not a well-known project management method and does not fall into the category of activity-oriented approaches. Therefore, CPM is the correct answer as the activity-oriented approach to project management.

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