Which of the following statements about stress management is true?
a) Unmanaged stress can have a negative impact on an individual’s life. b) Participating in physical activity is an ineffective way to manage stress. c) Individuals who fail to manage stress levels are unlikely to suffer any negative consequences. d) All of the above
➨ The term “stress” describes the situation in which a person is confronted with a constraint, a choice, or a demand related to what they desire and for which outcomes are uncertain as well as significant.
➨ A widely accepted definition of stress is associated with (i) constraints or demands and (ii) uncertainty regarding an outcome that is deemed important.
➨ There are two kinds of stress: constructive (positive) and destructive (negative): when a person has an opportunity to gain something from the situation, stress is good. This motivates them to perform at their best.
Following are the major causes of stress at the workplace and outsidethe workplace.
Group cohesion refers to how much a group member is attracted to each other and remains within the group. The ability to withstand disruption by external forces is usually a sign of its resilience. A group’s cohesion is a result of its members’ activities, interactions, and sentiments. A group’s cohesiveness binds all members to work together to reach the set goals.
Making a choice from among the available alternatives can be defined as making a decision. Making a decision implies the availability of alternatives. The alternatives are analyzed and then a particular alternative is selected, i.e. a decision is reached. In the absence of alternatives, no choice is available. Following certain steps is required to arrive at a decision. The first step is to examine the problem in detail, and the next is to choose the best alternative. In addition to reviewing the decision, it is important to confirm if it satisfies the decision-making circumstances. The process of making a decision is called decision-making.
Decision-making is the act of selecting the best option among several alternatives. A group may make a decision using the consensus mode or by majority vote. The process of reaching a consensus occurs when everyone agrees to the decision reached. An agreement reached by majority of the group participants is referred to as a majority vote. The group’s size will mostly determine whether a majority or a consensus decision is reached.
To determine the best option or course of action to meet one’s needs, an individual goes through a series of steps in the decision-making process. The process of determining a business initiative’s planned path, setting specific actions into motion, and analyzing the results of those actions is the goal of business planning. Choosing from available choices the most feasible course of action is a rational process known as decision-making. Management must be responsible for making an effective decision and implementing it in a way that will ensure the organization’s prosperity. What the manager decides to do today will determine how the organization will evolve in the future.
The Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) discipline is a subfield of applied behavior analysis (ABA), which aims to change organizational behavior using behavior analytic principles and contingency management techniques. OBM analyzes and employs antecedents, influencing behavior before it occurs, and consequences, what happens as a result of behavior, interventions which influence behavior linked to the mission and key objectives of the organization and its workers. Researchers have found that such interventions are effective in improving employee productivity, feedback delivery, safety, and morale in organizations.
A custodial model has the managerial orientation of using money to benefit employees. Based on the model, the benefits of the model depend on the organization’s economic resources and ability to pay for them. Despite the hope of gaining security, employees become increasingly dependent on their employers. Employees who rely heavily on the organization are less dependent on their bosses.
In the autocratic model, managerial orientation is power-oriented. Managers view authority as the only way to get things done, and employees are expected to follow orders. The result is a high degree of dependence on management. Employees live on a subsistence level, so they are dependent on management for their survival. Authorities are delegated to those they apply to through right of command in a largely formalized way. An autocratic business model involves management and owners controlling the work and workers on their payroll. Instead, management should focus on the things that motivate and inspire their employees to increase productivity.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) which has been studied since the 1970s is defined as the voluntary commitment of the person within an organization or company that is not part of his or her contractual tasks.
It refers to discretionary, non-required contributions by members to the organizations that employ them. It describes all the positive and constructive employee actions and behaviors that aren’t part of their formal job description.
Over the past three decades, interest in these behaviors has increased substantially. Organizational behavior has been linked to overall organizational effectiveness; thus, these types of employee behaviors have important consequences in the workplace.
We can look at a company like a little city. It has a mayor (typically the owner or the person highest in charge) well as different departments (heck, we can even have the cleaning crew as the sanitation department).