Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Evaluative – Evaluative Research and Evaluative Reasoning | Research Methodology

Evaluative

Evaluative

A person who is evaluative is someone who carefully considers or judges something. When you are evaluative, you judge or calculate the quality, value, or amount of something.

Evaluative research, also known as program evaluation or evaluation of a product, is a way to evaluate products and concepts and collect data that may help to improve them. It is defined as a form of systematic, disciplined inquiry that is undertaken to provide information that will assist in decision making about an object, program, practice, activity, or system.

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Applied Research – Concept, Types, Methods, Benefits, Limitations and Examples | Research Methodology

Applied Research

Applied Research

In applied research, the objective is to solve a specific problem or provide innovative solutions to issues affecting an individual, group or society.

Since it involves the practical application of scientific methods to everyday problems, it is sometimes called a scientific method of inquiry or contractual research.

An applied researcher takes time to identify a problem, develop a research hypothesis, and then execute experiments to test these hypotheses. In many cases, this approach employs empirical methods in order to solve practical problems.

Applied research refers to a non-systematic approach that provides solutions to specific problems or issues. These issues can range from a personal one to a group or societal one.

Due to its direct approach to finding solutions, it is called a non-systematic approach. An applied research process is often seen as a scientific process because the tools of science are applied practically to reach a conclusion.

A researcher conducting applied research identifies a problem, formulates a hypothesis, and conducts experiments to test it. The research further examines the findings of a pure or basic research.

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Target Population – Definitions, Examples and MCQs | Components of a Sample

Target Population

Target Population Definition

In this study, the main purpose is to describe the complete collection of objects. The selection of the target population is the first step of an observational or experimental study and is often a difficult one. The term “target population” and the term “population” are most often synonymous. Even if we sample correctly, sometimes we don’t hit the target: samples may not be representative of the population that we originally intended to sample.

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Disadvantages of Interview Method – Interview Method of Data Collection | Management Notes

Disadvantages of Interview Method

Disadvantages of Interview Method

The method of interview, in spite of its numerous advantages, has the following limitations: 

Very costly

Very costly

It is a very expensive affair. When using this method, the cost per case is much higher than when using a mailed questionnaire. In general, a questionnaire costs much less than an interview. The work of collecting data can require a large number of field workers to be trained and engaged. The entire process entails a lot of expenses, so a researcher with limited financial resources finds it difficult to adopt this approach.

An interview can be costly due to the time and resources involved, such as scheduling, travel, and compensation for participants. In addition, the cost of hiring interviewers and transcribing or recording interviews can increase expenses. Furthermore, it can provide valuable insights into many fields and is an important tool for obtaining information. By using online or remote methods, standardizing or structuring interviews, and recruiting participants from accessible populations, interviews can be mitigated.

  • Coordinating participant availability and scheduling
  • Participant and/or interviewer travel costs
  • Participants are compensated for their time
  • Interviewers should be trained or hired
  • Interview transcription or recording
  • Conducting an analysis of interview data
  • When conducting large-scale or long-term research, these costs can add up and become significant.

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Advantages of Interview Method – Interview Method of Data Collection | Management Notes

Advantages of Interview Method

Advantages of Interview Method

The advantages of the interview method over other techniques are as follows: 

  • Changing the interview situation allows a well-trained interviewer to obtain more data and greater clarity. This cannot be accomplished through a questionnaire. 
  • Unlike a questionnaire, an interview gives the researcher the opportunity to follow-up on leads. 
  • There are often shortcomings with questionnaires in that they are often shallow and do not give a true reflection of opinions and feelings. Interviews usually allow for much deeper exploration. 
  •  Using motivational techniques and maintaining rapport with the subject is one way for a skilled interviewer to obtain relevant information, other methods do not permit such an outcome. 
  • In an interview, respondents may reveal confidential information that they do not wish to record on a questionnaire. 
  • Those who cannot express themselves in writing, such as children and illiterate people, can use interview techniques. Questionnaires do not allow this. 

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Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules- Methods of Data Collection | Management Notes

Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules

Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules

When you work with questionnaires and schedules, you will observe that there are several similarities between the two. However, there are prominent differences also, which are as follows:

  • In most cases, the interviewer mails the interviewee a questionnaire, which is filled out by the interviewee. In contrast, the interviewer fills out a schedule at the time of the interview.
  • Questionnaires are more cost-effective than schedules since only the preparation and mailing of the schedules are required. Extra money is spent on training interviewers and appointing them as interviewers in the schedule method.
  • A questionnaire typically receives a low response rate since many people fail to respond. Meanwhile, schedules have a higher response since they are filled in by the interviewer at the time of the interview.
  • Questionnaires do not always identify the respondent, whereas schedules identify the interviewee or respondent.
  • Respondents may not return the questionnaire on time if they use the questionnaire method. Scheduling method does not present such problems since the schedule is filled at the time of the interview.
  • Questionnaires do not allow personal contact with respondents, whereas schedules do.
  • While the questionnaire method can be useful only for literate respondents, the schedule method does not require a literate interviewee.
  • Questionnaires are more likely to collect incomplete and incorrect information, while schedules collect complete and accurate data.

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Observation – Characteristics,Types, Advantages and Disadvantages | Techniques of Data Collection

Observation

Observation

Observations have contributed to some of the most significant scientific discoveries in human history. In On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin describes his theory of evolution based on his observations of animals and marine life at the Galapagos Islands.

As a primary research method, observation is used by social scientists, natural scientists, engineers, computer scientists, educational researchers, and many others.Based on the subject being researched, one makes varying types of observations.

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Research Quiz – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) | Management Notes

Research Quiz

Which of the following activities constitutes engagement in research?

Options

A) Providing potential subjects with written information about a study.
B) Obtaining informed consent and conducting research interviews.
C) Informing prospective subjects about the availability of research.
D) Obtaining subjects’ permission for researchers to contact them.

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To minimize potential risks of harm, a researcher conducting an on-line survey can:

To minimize potential risks of harm, a researcher conducting an on-line survey can:

To minimize potential risks of harm, a researcher conducting an on-line survey can:

A) Specify that all respondents must be legal adults.
B) Suggest that subjects print a copy of the informed consent form for their records.
C) Comply with the survey software’s Terms of Service agreement.
D) Design the survey so that no direct or indirect identifiers are collected.

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Which of the following statements is true regarding the regulations that govern research?

Which of the following statements is true regarding the regulations that govern research?

Which of the following statements is true regarding the regulations that govern research?

A) The research of an international graduate student enrolled at a U.S. university is not governed by U.S. regulations unless the student plans to publish the results.
B) International research collaborations involving U.S. funded researchers are not governed by U.S. regulations when the work takes place at a private university.
C) U.S. funded research collaborations are often governed by U.S. regulations no matter where the research takes place.
D) International research is governed by the United Nations instead of any specific country’s regulations.

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The most important factor in determining whether a research collaboration will be successful is:

The most important factor in determining whether a research collaboration will be successful is:

The most important factor in determining whether a research collaboration will be successful is:

A) Whether each research team member has an equal share of resources.
B) Whether there is ongoing communication among the team members about their goals and responsibilities.
C) Whether the research team has access an effective Technology Transfer Office.
D) Whether each research team member was trained in the same research methods

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