Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Symbolic Interactionism – History, Concepts, Applications, MCQs | Sociology

Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic Interactionism

The concept of symbolic interactionism is a prominent sociological perspective aimed at understanding human behavior and society through shared symbols, meanings, and interactions.

An analysis of how individuals perceive and interpret the world around them, how they develop a sense of self, and how they navigate through social interactions to construct meaning and social reality is rooted in the works of George Herbert Mead, Charles Cooley, and Herbert Blumer.

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Functionalism – History, Concepts, Assumption, Criticisms, MCQs in Detail | Sociology

Functionalism

Functionalism

According to functionalism, society can be understood by examining its functions and interrelationships. Functionalism is a major theoretical perspective in sociology that emphasizes the importance of social order, structure, and stability. It was developed by early sociologists, including Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Talcott Parsons.

In order to maintain societal equilibrium, this theoretical framework is often referred to as a structural-functional approach.

The purpose of this comprehensive explanation of functionalism in sociology is to explore its origins, key concepts, assumptions, criticisms, and contemporary applications.

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Iron Law of Oligarchy – Concept, Examples, Importance, Roles and MCQs | Sociology

Iron Law of Oligarchy

Iron Law of Oligarchy

In the early 20th century, Robert Michels developed the theory of the “Iron Law of Oligarchy.” According to him, power tends to concentrate in the hands of a small group of individuals in every organization, whether it be a political party, labor union, or other.

According to Michels, an oligarchy forms because an organization must divide labor in order to function efficiently. There are some people who become specialists in certain areas and gain expertise, while there are others who do not. It is the specialists who then become the decision-makers, and they consolidate power over time and become the organization’s ruling class.

According to Michels, this process is inevitable and attempts to stop it will fail. It was only by challenging those in power and encouraging new voices and ideas that we could address the problem of oligarchy. According to the Iron Law of Oligarchy, power tends to concentrate in the hands of a few, even in democratic organizations.

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Scope of Political Science – 9 Major Points Explained | Fundamentals of Sociology

Scope of Political Science

Scope of Political Science

At the local, national, and international levels, political science involves analyzing and understanding the processes, systems, and behaviors that shape political decisions and actions.

In order to understand how political systems operate and how they impact society, political scientists use a variety of research methods, including statistical analysis, qualitative research, and comparative studies. In addition to studying political ideology, culture, and history, political science also examines how media, technology, and global and regional organizations shape politics.

Politics is the study of how political systems work, what makes them complex, and how they can be improved and optimized to the benefit of society.

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Gender Polarization – Meaning , Examples and Questions | Fundamentals of Sociology

Gender Polarization

Gender Polarization

Gender Polarization Definition:

In recent years, there has been a growing trend of gender polarization. This phenomenon is characterized by the increasing divide between what are traditionally seen as “male” and “female” roles and interests. This divergence is evident in many areas of life, from the workplace to leisure activities. The causes of this phenomenon are varied and complex, but it is clear that it has had a significant impact on society.

Gender polarization is the tendency of people to identify themselves and others as male or female. This can be seen in the way that people dress, talk, and behave. It can also be seen in the way that people think about gender roles. Gender polarization can lead to discrimination and violence.

Gender polarization has led to a number of high-profile discussions in recent years. One example is the debate over the role of women in combat positions, which gained attention during the 2016 U.S. presidential election cycle.

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Merits and Demerits of Party System – 10 Major Points | Fundamentals of Sociology

Merits and Demerits of Party System

Comparative political science terms the system of government by political parties in a democratic country as a party system. Politicians are viewed as having common characteristics: they control the government, have mass popular support, and have internal mechanisms to control funding, information, and nominations.

Researchers studying the United States, especially James Bryce and Moisey Ostrogorsky, developed the concept, which has been applied to other democracies. Party systems are classified by Giovanni Sartori, who devised the method that is most widely used today. The number of relevant parties and fragmentation of party systems should be used to categorize party systems, he suggested. Depending on how many parties there are, party systems can be distinguished.

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Characteristics of Caste System in India – 6 Major Characteristics | Social Stratification

Characteristics of Caste System in India

Characteristics of Caste System in India

In India, caste is a hotly debated subject. Caste is derived from the Spanish word ‘Casta’, which means ‘breed’. A caste system and its associated social practices are represented by it in the context of Indian culture. There are many ways in which the caste system influences Indian social life, since it assigns ascribed status to its members. There are four Varnas according to the Rig Veda, the oldest and most important of all the four Vedas – Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. It is the profession of priests and teachers that is associated with Brahmans. Warriors and rulers are the Kshatriyas. Traders and other common people make up the Vaishyas. As the lowest ranking members of society, the Shudras perform menial tasks.

Historically, there was a fifth Varna called the untouchables, who were not considered members of society. The Varna system does not include tribes or people of other religions. Caste membership is determined by birth and individuals are born into a caste. It is impossible for an individual to change his or her caste. In some instances, castes as a whole have claimed a higher status in society after improving their economic status and changing their lifestyles. There is no guarantee that such claims will be accepted.It is possible that the dominant castes will react negatively to the claim. Nevertheless, the caste system would remain intact even if the claim was accepted. Caste systems in India have become less rigid thanks to Sanskritization, inter-caste marriage, and advances in education.

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How do Sociologists View and Think about society?

How do Sociologists View and Think about society?

How do Sociologists View and Think about society?

All sociologists are interested in how individuals’ experiences are shaped by social interactions and society at large. Sociologists believe that personal decisions do not exist in a vacuum. People are pressured by cultural patterns and social forces to choose one option over another. By analyzing the behavior of large groups of people living in the same society and experiencing the same societal pressures, sociologists attempt to identify these general patterns.

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Agrarian Societies and Agarian Economy – Meaning and Characteristics | Sociology

Agrarian Societies and Agarian Economy

Agrarian Societies

Meaning and Characteristics of Agrarian Societies

Agrarian societies are characterized by their reliance on agriculture as their primary means of sustenance. These societies are also often based on extended family systems, where members support one another through work and trade. Agrarian societies have flourished for thousands of years, but they are now in danger of disappearing due to a number of factors including globalization, climate change, and population growth.

These societies typically have a higher level of social stratification than non-agrarian societies and they often lack a developed writing system. Agrarian societies are found in many parts of the world and they have been around for thousands of years. The major characteristics of Agrarian Societies include: Work all day, all year and every time; Introduce new methods in farming; Rapid technological development; Production of food and Increase the fertility of the soil.

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Absolute Poverty – Meaning, Causes and Examples | Fundamentals of Sociology

Absolute Poverty

Absolute Poverty

Meaning of Absolute Poverty

There is no agreed upon definition of absolute poverty, but it generally refers to a situation in which an individual or family has no assets, cannot afford basic needs, and faces significant challenges in obtaining food, shelter, health care, and other essential services. In the developed world, absolute poverty rates have been in decline for many years due to improvements in economic conditions and social policies that provide assistance to vulnerable individuals and families.An individual who is in absolute poverty cannot meet his or her immediate needs. Their basic needs, such as shelter, water, food, and warmth, are not met. As opposed to relative poverty, where individuals are poor compared to others, this term refers to actual poverty.

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Penology – Meaning, Types, Importance, Scope and Example | Sociology

Penology

Penology

Meaning of Penology 

 

Penology is the scientific study of the punishment and rehabilitation of criminals. It is a multidisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, criminology, and law.

Penologists study the nature of the crime, the effects of punishment on offenders, and alternative forms of punishment and rehabilitation.

Definition: Penology is a branch of criminology focusing on theories of punishment and their impact on individuals and society.

Etymology: Derived from Latin, “pena” (punishment) and “logos” (study), reflecting its nature as the study of punishment.

Origin: Coined by French criminologist Auguste Forel in 1885 in his book “Penology: The Science of Crime and Punishment.”

Purpose: Penologists aim to rehabilitate prisoners and reduce crime rates through the study of criminal justice systems.

Focus: Examines the effects of punishment on both offenders and society.

Historical Context: Emerged in the late 19th century, formalized by Forel’s introduction of the term “penology” in 1885.

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Apartheid – Racist Political and Social System | Fundamentals of Sociology

Apartheid

Apartheid

Apartheid is a social system in which races are completely separated. In South Africa, apartheid (Afrikaans: “apartness”) was the name given to the government’s policies of segregation based on race, which built upon the previous history of racial division. As a result of the rule of white minorities in South Africa, apartheid was a racist political and social system. Non-whites were discriminated against based on their skin color and facial features. During the twentieth century, this existed between 1948 and the early 1990s.

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