Characteristics of Research
What is scientific research?
Scientific research is the application of scientific methods, and scientific principles to the investigation of relationships among different variables to find out solutions to problems or to develop a new theory. It is mostly carried out by the scientific researcher with systematic observation. Governments should not fund any scientific research whose consequences are unclear. The purpose of scientific research is to contribute to science by collecting, interpreting, and evaluating data systematically in a planned manner and that is what a researcher does. Research findings generated by a small group of scientists are socialized, and new information about a diagnosis, treatment, and application is revealed. The purpose of this review is to provide details about how scientific research is defined, classified, and conducted.
Scientists should determine the subject, plan, and specify the methodology before beginning scientific research. It is stated in the Declaration of Helsinki that “public participation in medical research is designed primarily to provide insights into the causes, development, and effects of a disease, and to develop preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions (methods, operations, and therapies). Research into the reliability, efficiency, accessibility, effectiveness and quality of even the best-proven interventions should be conducted continuously. The characteristics of scientific research are as follows:
Characteristics of Research
Scientific research must have some specific purpose for conducting the research. The main characteristic of scientific research is that there must be some purpose involved in conducting the research. In conducting further research process, all the activities to be carried out are directly influenced by the purpose of the research ie; the purpose of the research forms the basis of your procedures which influences your methods of executing it and affects the interpretation of your findings with scientific reasoning as well. Therefore, if your research has followed some major purpose, meaningful results can be obtained but if your research is without purpose it will lead your study nowhere.
In starting the research, the manager had a specific goal or purpose in mind. It is important for the organization to increase employee commitment, as this will benefit the organization in many ways. The resulting decrease in turnover, absenteeism and possibly improved performance levels will definitely benefit the organization with increased employee commitment. Therefore, the research is purposeful.
People Also Ask:
What is methodological purposiveness in qualitative research?
Ans: Researchers who use purposeful methodological approaches in qualitative research aspire to conduct rigorous scientific studies while also being sensitive to their own perspectives and situatedness. The most effective approach to qualitative research is one that considers the researcher’s goals and objectives select methods that address those goals and documents the research process. Methodologically sound qualitative research aims to be accurate and reliable while taking advantage of the insights gained through participant engagement.
In scientific research, there is an important need to test the hypothesis to understand and find out the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Therefore, testability is one of the important characteristics of scientific research. A manager or researcher can develop certain hypotheses about how employee commitment can be enhanced through discussion with a random sample of employees of the organization and a study of previous research in this field. Then the hypotheses can be tested by applying certain statistical tests to data collected for the purpose. Researchers might hypothesize, for instance, that employees who recognize they are part of the decision-making process are more dedicated.
Once data is collected, this hypothesis can be tested. If the hypothesis is substantiated, a correlation analysis will show it. The purpose of scientific research is to investigate hypotheses developed logically based on a study of the problem to see whether the data supports the hypothesis or conjecture that has been developed. This also increases the research’s testability.
Scientific research must be replicable as the research results which are replicable have more acceptability and confidence as being scientific. Replicability means that if we use similar methods and procedures of data collection and analysis as compared to the previous study, the other research studies must also come out with similar results.The hypotheses are tested again and we gain for better outcomes. When similar data collected by other organizations support the same findings, we will have greater faith and trust in the findings. It is important that the results of hypothesis tests should be supported repeatedly when similar research is conducted. The scientific context of our research will be strengthened. We think as we do as a result of chance, but our thoughts reflect the truth about people.
According to the study’s findings, the manager/researcher concludes that employee participation in decision making is one of the most important factors influencing employee commitment. When similar findings and conclusions are based on data collected by other organizations using the same method, we will give more credence to these findings. In other words, if you repeat certain types of research in similar circumstances, again and again, your results should be supported. We will be more confident in the scientific nature of the research to the extent it is replicated or repeated. We have no reason to believe our hypotheses are just random, but rather are based on the true situation of the population. Replicability is, therefore, an essential characteristic of scientific research.
Scientific research must be objective in nature. Objectivity is one of the important characteristics of scientific research. Scientific research must deal with facts rather than interpretations of facts. The data that is collected for research should be free from all biases and vested interests ie; observation should be unaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he/she should able to see and accept facts as they are, not as he/she might wish them to be. The interpretation of data analysis results should always be objective, that is, based on the actual findings derived from the data, not on our own sentiments or individual values. It is inappropriate for the researcher to argue that open participation in decision-making would lead to increased organizational commitment despite the fact that the results did not support the hypothesis. A research study based on factual data would not be able to support such a claim, but rather, a researcher’s subjective opinion would. The researchers would not have needed to conduct research if they believed this from the very beginning.
Organizations can suffer a lot of harm from researchers who draw conclusions from research that aren’t based on data or that are misleading. If the hypothesis addressing organizational commitment was not supported, as in our previous example, it would take considerably longer to find ways to allow employees to participate in decision-making. We only realized later that employees continued to quit, remained, and efforts were wasted in creating opportunities for employee participation absent, and who had no commitment to the company. Research also shows that if an increase in pay does not increase employee satisfaction, then it will not be successful financially. Such a futile enterprise is based on the unscientific interpretation and implementation of research findings.
When we interpret research objectively, we become scientists. Even if managers or researchers have some initial subjective values and beliefs, the interpretation of the data should be free of personal values and biases. Managers should pay special attention to this aspect if they wish to conduct their own research. Scientific investigation is also characterized by objectivity.
Scientific research must be carried out carefully with proper thought-out methodology. In order to make a meaningful and worthwhile contribution to the field of knowledge, research must be carried out rigorously. Conducting rigorous research requires good theoretical knowledge and a clearly laid out methodology. This will eliminate the bias; facilitate proper data collection and analysis, leading to sound and reliable research findings.
Scientific research must have the feature of parsimony ie; the research should be conducted in a simple and economic manner. There should be simplicity in explaining the problems and generalizing solutions for the problems. Vague ideas should be converted into simple concepts.
Scientific research must have the characteristics of generalizability. The results obtained from the research must be applicable and acceptable worldwide. Generalizability refers to the scope of applying the research findings of one organizational setting to other settings of almost similar nature. The more generalizable the research, the greater will be its usefulness and value. However, it is not always possible to generalize the research findings to all other settings, situations, or organizations.
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