Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Difference between Applied and Fundamental Research | Business Research Methods

Difference between Applied and Fundamental Research

Fundamental Research

Fundamental Research is the research which is generally conducted to develop some new theories. Basic Research is also called Fundamental Research. Basic Research mainly focuses on generalizations and formulation of a theory. One of the example of Basic Research include research studies that are concerned with human behavior. Basic Research is called as pure research because it attempts to study various theoretical concepts and details relating to various aspects in pure sciences and to a dependable extent in social sciences.

Different types of research works that are conducts by various scholars, professors and the other researchers devoted in generating  new knowledge in particular areas of their interest is called fundamental research.

Applied Research

Applied Research is the research which is generally conducted to solve the problem of the organization setting. Applied Research is also called as Decisional Research. Applied research is deductive in nature that means it keeps some theories as its base while conducting research so as to generate some solutions (conclusions).

For example, Applied Research can be used to find out conclusions (solutions) facing a concrete social or business problem. Along with this , Applied Research is very useful to identify social economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the marketing research or evaluation.

Difference between Applied and Fundamental Research Applied Research Fundamental Research
1.  Applied research is the research which is generally conducted to solve the problem of the organization setting. Fundamental research is the research which is generally conducted to develop some new theories.
2. Applied research is more concerned with knowledge that has immediate application and would be useful in making decisions and formulating policies. Fundamental research is concerned with the development, examination, verification and refinement of research methods, procedures ,techniques and tools that form the body of research methodology.
3. Applied research is deductive in nature that means it keeps some theories as its base while conducting research. Fundamental research is inductive in nature that means it comes with new theory discoveries.
4. Applied research is also called action research. Fundamental research is also called basic research or pure research.
5. Applied research is quantitative in nature. The managers generally carry out applied research works and it is used in day to day life. Fundamental research is qualitative in nature. The professors generally carry out fundamental research and it is used for future benefits.

Detailed Concept of Applied Research

In applied research, the objective is to solve a specific problem or provide innovative solutions to issues affecting an individual, group or society. Since it involves the practical application of scientific methods to everyday problems, it is sometimes called a scientific method of inquiry or contractual research. An applied researcher takes time to identify a problem, develop a research hypothesis, and then execute experiments to test these hypotheses. In many cases, this approach employs empirical methods in order to solve practical problems.

Applied research refers to a non-systematic approach that provides solutions to specific problems or issues. These issues can range from a personal one to a group or societal one. Due to its direct approach to finding solutions, it is called a non-systematic approach. An applied research process is often seen as a scientific process because the tools of science are applied practically to reach a conclusion.

A researcher conducting applied research identifies a problem, formulates a hypothesis, and conducts experiments to test it. The research further examines the findings of a pure or basic research.

Types of Applied Research

Types of Applied Research

There are three types of applied research. They are:

Evaluation Research

Applied evaluation research involves creating objective outcomes for a research project or making informed decisions based on existing information about the research subject. Research of this kind is usually carried out in business contexts, for instance, an organisation might use evaluation research to determine how to reduce overhead costs.

Research and Development

An applied research method that develops new products and services based on the needs of a market is known as research and development. Research involves gathering information about marketing needs and improving an existing product or creating new products that satisfy those needs.

Action Research

It is a type of applied research that provides practical solutions to specific problems faced by businesses, by pointing them in the right direction. It is a process of reflection that is usually restricted to specific contexts and is situational in nature.

Methods of Applied Research

Methods of Applied Research

The methods of applied research are:

Surveys: In this method, respondents are asked questions relating to the research topic and are expected to record their responses which reflect their opinions. The questions can be either close-ended (providing quantitative data) or open-ended (providing qualitative data).

Observation: In this method, the researcher observes subjects in their environment to learn about their behavior and thoughts, though this is susceptible to his or her personal biases.

Focus Group: It involves gathering data about a certain issue from a group of individuals. The researcher asks open-ended questions of a sample of people who have faced the issue.

Interview: In this method, information is collected one-on-one from subjects. An interviewer asks questions that relate to the research topic to the subjects.Although it is time-consuming, it is the most accurate source of data for the research. It can be conducted online or by video call, audio recorder, etc.

Data Reporting: It’s a method of gathering information for a research topic that may become a source of data for future studies. It can be published in a newspaper, magazine, or report.

Benefits of Applied Research

Benefits of Applied Research

The benefits of applied research are as follows:

  • Research is unbiased since it tests the evidence to get good outcomes, and it is well-planned and designed, all of which make the research a much valid approach.
  • An application of applied research helps organizations or individuals find solutions to specific problems efficiently and accurately.

Limitations of Applied Research

Limitations of Applied Research

The limitations of applied research are as follows:

  • There is no flexibility in the nature of the project and it is bound by deadlines.
  • It’s being limited in nature and is therefore not considered to be generalized since finding the solution is not generalized properly.

Examples of Applied Research

Examples of Applied Research

Applied research in business

In the business sector, applied research is totally dependent on the products and services that they make. Applied research helps these businesses to determine market needs and trends, then mold their products accordingly. Businesses benefit from applied research as they are able to identify the gaps in their findings and understand the preferences of the target market. Applied research can help businesses improve their hiring process. In similar way, applied research makes workplace efficient and policies.

Applied Research in Psychology

The goal of applied research in psychology is to determine workplace behaviors, human resources, and organizational development. Researchers use this technique when they experiment with the thinking process of individuals and then develop solutions that match their behavior. Applied research to determine new ways to handle depression. Applied research to regulate a motivated work strategy to get employees to attend regularly.

Application Research in Health

In the medical field, applied research is mostly used as a method to test new medicines based on evidence and solutions. To achieve verifiable and evidential results, it combines scientific knowledge with health experiences. Researchers are examining the healing properties of specific medicines, investigating the side effects of specific drugs, researching a new way of performing heart surgery.

Detailed Concept of Fundamental Research/ Basic Research

Fundamental Research/ Basic research is a type of research that aims at gaining a better understanding of a subject, a phenomenon, or a state of nature, with the intent of advancing knowledge rather than solving a specific problem. Between the late 19th century and the early 20th century, basic research was developed as a way to overcome societal divides regarding the application of science.

In fundamental research, knowledge and understanding about natural phenomena are the main goals. Life and health sciences focus primarily on deciphering the mechanisms of life and understanding not only how humans function, but also how organisms function and how they interact.

Generally, basic research is exploratory, descriptive or explanatory; however, it is often explanatory. It is the primary objective of this research approach to gather information in order to improve one’s understanding, and this information can be used to propose solutions to a problem.

Methods of Basic Research

Methods of Basic Research

The methods of basic research are:


Interviews are a common way to collect data in basic research. They involve interacting with individuals to gather relevant information about a phenomenon. Based on the research process and objectives, interviews can be structured, unstructured, or semi-structured. Researchers who conduct structured interviews ask a set of pre-planned questions, whereas they do not use pre-prepared questions in unstructured interviews. To obtain relevant information, he or she relies on spontaneity and follow-up questions. Semi-structured interviews, on the other hand, allow the researcher to stray from premeditated questions in order to learn more about the research subject.


An observation is a method of gathering data that entails paying close attention to a phenomenon for a specific period of time in order to gather relevant information about its behavior. In basic research, the researcher may have to study the subject for a certain period as the subject interacts with the environment. According to its procedures and approach, an observation can be structured or unstructured. Data collection is carried out according to a predetermined schedule and procedure in structured observation, while unstructured observation is not governed by a predetermined procedure.


Experiments are a quantitative data-gathering method used to test hypotheses and prove or refute existing theories. To obtain objective research outcomes, this method of data collection manipulates dependent and independent variables. An experiment is typically designed to determine how an independent variable will affect the dependent variable in the research context. Controlled experiments, field experiments, and natural experiments can be used for this.


The questionnaire consists of a series of questions to which the research subjects respond. It is a convenient data collection tool because it allows you to collect large amounts of data from a large number of individuals concurrently.

Examples of Basic/Fundamental Research

Examples of Basic/Fundamental Research

There are many areas of basic research, but examples can be found in the fields of medicine, education, psychology, and technology, to name a few. Basic research has the goal of expanding and developing the frontier of knowledge.

Basic/Fundamental Research in Education

The aim of basic research in education is to develop pedagogical theories that explain the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Examples of basic research in education include; What are the benefits of the Language Acquisition Device for children?, What is the process of retentive memory in humans?, and What factors affect students’ concentration in class?

Basic/Fundamental Research in Science

Researchers use basic research to expand their understanding of molecules and cells that have been discovered, strange phenomena, and little-understood processes. Fundamental research contributes to many scientific breakthroughs, even if the benefits may not be apparent immediately. Basic research in science includes; Analyzing the chemical composition of organic molecules and The study of the components of human DNA.

Basic/Fundamental Research in Health

Through basic research methods, healthcare can be improved by providing new dimensions to the understanding and interpretation of health issues. For instance, healthcare practitioners gain more insight into the origins of diseases, which can provide cures for chronic medical conditions. Health researchers believe that vaccines are often developed based on an understanding of the disease, such as the polio vaccine. Several medical breakthroughs have been attributed to the wealth of knowledge gained through basic research.

Basic/ Fundamental Research in Psychology

Basic research in psychology helps individuals and organisations gain insights and better understand different conditions. These methods are purely theoretical, and they allow psychologists to understand certain behaviors better without offering solutions. Basic research in psychology includes; Is stress associated with increased aggression? , An analysis of behavioral differences between children raised by separated parents and children raised by married parents, and What is the impact of gender stereotypes on depression?

Similarly You  may also like:


1 thought on “Difference between Applied and Fundamental Research | Business Research Methods”

  1. whoah this blog is magnificent i love reading your articles.Keep up the good work! You recognize, lots of persons are searching around for this info, you could help them greatly.


Leave a Comment