Emerging Trends in Organizational Behavior |Organizational Behaviour
BBA | BBA-BI | BCIS | BBA-TT | BBM
Emerging Trends in Organization Behavior: The emerging trends in Organizational Behaviour mostly focuses on aspects to make human resource a strategic partner. The present context calls for understanding how human capital management impacts business results.By most estimates, Organizational Behavior emerged as a distant field around the 1940s. However, its origin can be traced/drawn much further back in time. Organizational Behavior has been around for a long time; it just wasn’t organized into a unified discipline until World War II. During the passage of time, over the years, managers have adopted different practices (models of Organizational Behavior) to manage the behavior of people in organizations. Models are frameworks for possible explanations of why people do as they do at work. All the models of organizational behavior are broadly classified into four types: autocratic, custodial, supportive, and collegial.
The journey of Organizational Behavior has been started from the autocratic model and its ultimate destination is the collegial model. Different experts of OB have presented different emerging trends in Organizational Behavior. In this section, we describe in detail the trends presented by Keith Davis as these trends seem simple, comprehensive, and much more universally applicable in nature. At the same time, we also request the readers to go through the trend offered by the other two experts for a better understanding of the subject matter.
Emerging Trends in Organization Behavior
|Closed System||Open System|
|Materialistic Orientation||Human Orientation|
|Centralized Power||Distributed Power|
|Extrinsic Motivation||Intrinsic Motivation|
|Negative Attitude about People||Positive Attitude about People|
|Focus on Organizational needs||Balanced Focus on employee and organizational needs|
|Imposed Discipline||Self Discipline|
|Authoritative managerial role||Managerial role of leadership and team support|
All organizations have two organizational systems: Closed system and Open system. The trend is toward considering the organization as an open system. An open system is composed of subsystems and the focus is towards integrations of them and getting synergy effect. Previously an organization was considered a closed system. The open systems anchor of organizational behavior states that the closed system is self-contained and governed by rigid structures and tight rules and regulations.
2. HUMAN ORIENTATION
Many managers in the past viewed that employees come to the workplace to satisfy their economic needs only. Therefore, managers mostly offered material rewards like money, benefits, commodities, etc. to get the job done. Today, the expectations of employees have changed a lot. Therefore, managerial practices have been changed more towards cooperation, teamwork, support, and guidance. People are no more one of the factors of production – they are both ends and means of development.
3. DISTRIBUTED POWER
Under the classical organizational structure, people were viewed only as a means of production. Power was on the hands of managers; only-employees were powerless. Organizations followed the centralization of authority. But now, the trend is towards the decentralization of power. The focus is on participation and empowerment of people in organizations.
4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
The focus of managers previously was mostly towards extrinsic motivation. The factors in this category are salary, supervision, job security, company policy, etc. In recent years, managers have started offering more intrinsic motivational factors as compared to extrinsic factors to their employees. Intrinsic motivational factors include achievement, recognition, work itself, etc.
5. BALANCED FOCUS
The organization started its journey by focusing much on organizational needs, objectives, and results to be achieved. Objectives, needs, and feelings of employees were neglected. But later on, managers realized that there should be mutuality of interest–people need organizations and organizations to need people. The result is that there is a balanced focus on employee and organizational needs. So, managers have started formulating superordinate goals.
Disciplines are code of behavior at workplaces. Traditionally managers focused on an imposed discipline like in theory ‘X’. They exercised the ‘carrot and stick’ approach to control the behavior and get the job done. But it provided only a short-term solution and resulted in serious side effects. The emerging trend in Organizational Behavior is towards self-discipline which produces higher results and costs less. It is achieved by managers by creating an environment where employees take themselves as citizens of the organization. In this type of situation, employees are self-motivated, self-controlled, and guided by their own judgment.
7. LEADERSHIP AND TEAM SUPPORT
The authoritative managerial role is characterized by power exercise, getting obedience, dependence on the boss, and a negative attitude toward subordinates. The result is minimum performance, reward, and low job satisfaction. This situation forced managers to adopt a collegial role i.e. the managerial role of leadership and team support. Managers build a feeling of partnership with employees – employees feel needed and useful. The result (is) increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
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