Expectancy Theory of Motivation | Vroom’s Expectancy Theory | Expectancy Value Theory | Theories of Motivation | Organizational Behavior | Management Notes
In the present situation, expectancy theory is a widely accepted motivation theory because it focuses on the outcome. The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform is dependent on the intensity of expectation that performance will be followed by the definite outcome of an individual. It means that the expectancy theory of motivation focuses on the willingness of an individual to act in a certain way depends on the fulfillment of his expectation followed by the outcome.
It says that employee will be motivated and devote a high level of effort when he believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal and appraisal will provide a good reward. The rewards may involve bonus, increase in salary, promotion to higher-level, etc. reward and incentives provided by the manager should satisfy employee’s personal goals. The basic element of this theory is that motivation depends on how much an employee wants something and how likely he thinks he will get it. According to this theory:
Motivation= Expectancy * Valence (Goals)
This theory focuses on three relationships which are as follows.
Effort- Performance Relationship ( E-P )
It refers to a person’s perception of the probability that effort will lead to performance. Expectancy is defined as a probability rate range between 0-1. when there is a possibility of certainty of accomplishment of assigned task then E-P will be 1. Similarly, when there is no certainty on the accomplishment of the assigned task then E-P will be 0.
Performance-Reward relationship (P-R )
It is the degree to which employees believe that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes or rewards. If a person perceives there is an absolute certainty that high performance will lead to a pay raise then P-R will be close to 1. Similarly, if a person perceives that there is absolutely uncertainty that high performance will lead to a pay raise then P-R will be 0.
Reward-Personal goal Relationship (R-G )
It is the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goal. It shows the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individuals. When an individual perceives that outcome leads to a high level of satisfaction then he will be motivated to work. It is anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome. It ranges from -1 to +1.
Therefore, the theory is helpful in understanding the relationship between individual effort and performance achieved, and between performance and reward provided, and again between reward provided and personal goal satisfaction. The study of the relationship between these elements helps to know employee level of motivation.
Expectancy Value Theory
Expectancy Value Theory proposed by Vroom in the year 1964 postulates that motivation for a given behavior or action is determined by two factors:
(i) expectancy, ie, how probable it is that a wanted (instrumental) outcome is achieved through the behavior or action;
(ii) value, ie, how much the individual values the desired outcome.