Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Financial intermediaries          .

Financial intermediaries          

  1. do not invest in new long-term securities
  2. include insurance companies and pension funds
  3. include the national and regional stock exchanges
  4. are usually underwriting syndicates

Answer: b. include insurance companies and pension funds

Answer Explanation

Including insurance companies and pension funds is the correct answer. An intermediary acts as a middleman between savers (individuals or institutions with surplus funds) and borrowers (individuals or institutions that need funds). By facilitating the flow of funds between savers and borrowers, these intermediaries play a crucial role in the financial system.

Financial intermediaries include insurance companies and pension funds. Here’s why:

Insurance companies:

An insurance company is a financial intermediary that provides insurance products and risk management services. Whenever individuals or businesses purchase insurance policies, they pay premiums to the insurance company. The insurance company pooled these premiums and used them to cover potential losses. To generate returns and meet their financial obligations to policyholders, they invest premium income in different assets, such as bonds and equities.

Pension funds:

Employees and employers contribute funds to pension funds for the purpose of providing retirement benefits. Pension funds manage and invest these funds. With the goal of generating returns that can support pension payments in the future, these funds invest in a variety of financial instruments, including stocks, bonds, and other assets.

As financial intermediaries, insurance companies and pension funds collect funds from individuals or organizations and invest those funds. In order to satisfy their financial obligations, such as paying insurance claims or funding pension benefits, these returns are used.

Why the other options are not correct

a. Do not invest in new long-term securities:

This option is incorrect. Financial intermediaries invest in a wide range of securities, including new long-term securities, as part of their investment portfolio. Investment decisions by financial intermediaries are influenced by their investment objectives, risk tolerance, and client or policyholder needs.

c. Include the national and regional stock exchanges:

This option is incorrect. National and regional stock exchanges are neither financial intermediaries nor trading platforms, but rather places where buyers and sellers can trade securities. Although stock exchanges facilitate the trading of stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments, they are not intermediaries that collect funds or invest on behalf of their clients.

d. Are usually underwriting syndicates:

This option is incorrect. Although financial intermediaries can be part of underwriting syndicates for new security issuances, not all financial intermediaries are. The purpose of underwriting syndicates is to help companies raise capital by underwriting new securities offerings. They are comprised of investment banks and other financial institutions. In addition to underwriting, financial intermediaries engage in a wide range of financial activities.


In conclusion, financial intermediaries play a vital role in the financial system by intermediating between savers and borrowers. Examples of financial intermediaries include insurance companies and pension funds. Investing those funds in various securities generates returns that they use to fulfill their financial obligations. They gather funds from individuals and organizations and invest those funds in various securities.

The role and functions of financial intermediaries are essential for understanding the economy and financial markets.

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Bibisha Shiwakoti

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