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Functionalism – History, Concepts, Assumption, Criticisms, MCQs in Detail | Sociology


According to functionalism, society can be understood by examining its functions and interrelationships. Functionalism is a major theoretical perspective in sociology that emphasizes the importance of social order, structure, and stability. It was developed by early sociologists, including Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Talcott Parsons.

In order to maintain societal equilibrium, this theoretical framework is often referred to as a structural-functional approach.

The purpose of this comprehensive explanation of functionalism in sociology is to explore its origins, key concepts, assumptions, criticisms, and contemporary applications.

Historical Origins of Functionalism

This theoretical perspective was developed as a response to the societal changes brought about by industrialization and modernization during the 19th and 20th centuries. This perspective was founded on the work of early sociologists such as Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Talcott Parsons.

Sociology was founded on the study of social integration and cohesion by Emile Durkheim, often referred to as the father of sociology.

Durkheim believed that a properly integrated society depends on strong bonds between its members and the presence of shared values. His work emphasizes the necessity of understanding social facts and the role that social institutions play in maintaining social order.

In his view, society is an interdependent organism, and Herbert Spencer applied biological analogies to it. As a result of natural selection, he argued that societies evolve and progress through the process of natural selection, where the best adaptable elements survive and contribute to society’s growth.

In the mid-20th century, Talcott Parsons, a prominent sociologist, developed functionalism’s theoretical framework and introduced the functional prerequisites of society. According to him, societies have certain basic needs, such as adapting to the environment, achieving goals, integrating, and maintaining patterns, which can be met by specific social institutions.

Core Concepts of Functionalism

The core concepts of Functionalism are as follows:

Core Concepts of Functionalism

1. Social Functions:

Functionalism is based on the concept of social functions. Functionalists analyze how different elements and institutions in society contribute to the overall functioning and stability of society.

In order to maintain social order, institutions perform specific functions. Individual well-being as well as the continuation of society depend on the support, socialization, and care provided by the family institution.

2. Social Structure:

According to functionalists, society is a complex system with many interconnected parts. Social structures comprise institutions, groups, and norms that influence the behaviors and interactions of individuals. Individuals in society are guided by these structures to act according to their roles and expectations, which shape their identities and guide their actions.

3. Social Order:

Functionalism emphasizes the importance of social order for a society to function smoothly. In social order, individuals and groups cooperate and coordinate in accordance with established patterns of behavior and social norms. In order to promote societal stability and prevent chaos, social order must be maintained.

4. Equilibrium and Integration:

Functionalism argues that societies seek equilibrium in order to survive and develop. The social system can be disrupted or changed by adjusting other parts in order to restore equilibrium if one part changes or disrupts the system. Also analyzed by functionalists is how well individuals and institutions are interconnected, and how well they are integrated between different aspects of society.

5. Manifest and Latent Functions:

Functionalists differentiate between manifest and latent functions of social institutions. Manifest functions represent the stated purposes of institutions. Education, for example, has a manifest function of imparting knowledge and skills to students. However, latent functions are unintended and hidden, and may have either positive or negative effects.

Students could develop social networks through latent functions in the context of education or reinforce existing social hierarchies through latent functions.

Assumptions of Functionalism

Some of the assumptions of functionalism are as follows:

Assumptions of Functionalism

1. Functional Unity:

Functionalists believe that social institutions work together harmoniously to fulfill societal needs by sharing common values, norms, and goals.

2. Stability and Order:

Functionalists contend that societies strive for stability and equilibrium. In order to keep social order and prevent widespread conflict, social institutions and norms are necessary.

3. Consensus and Cooperation:

Functionalism assumes that society agrees on fundamental values and norms. This consensus leads to cooperative efforts to reach common goals.

4. Macro-level Analysis:

Functionalism focuses primarily on macro-level analysis of societal structures and their influence on individual behavior and group dynamics, often overlooking micro-level interactions.

Criticisms of Functionalism

Some of the criticisms of functionalism are as follows:

Criticisms of Functionalism


1. Static View of Society:

It is commonly criticized that functionalism presents a static and conservative perspective on society. Many functionalists tend to ignore social change and historical context, focusing on the existing social order and the functions that maintain stability. Society is a living organism that constantly evolves, and social structures change over time as well.

Social conflict, power struggles, and the possibility of social change may not be understood by functionalism due to its emphasis on stability and equilibrium.

2. Lack of Agency:

Functionalism tends to downplay individual agency and the ability for individuals to actively shape society. Social structures and institutions play a significant role in shaping human behavior, but the theory often overlooks the role of individuals in challenging and changing them. 

It is true that individuals can play an active role in challenging norms, advocating for social reform, and influencing society. It can be difficult to understand how social change occurs and how individuals can impact society if we ignore the agency of individuals.

3. Conservative Bias:

Critics argue functionalism is conservative because it emphasizes social order and stability at the expense of social equality. The functionalism approach legitimizes existing power structures and inequalities by emphasizing the positive functions of social institutions and downplaying their dysfunctions.

In this case, critical analysis of societal issues and reform of society may be discouraged. In addition, functionalism’s emphasis on consensus and cooperation may overlook society’s inherent conflicts and power struggles.

4. Oversimplification:

A criticism of functionalism has been that it reduces complex social phenomena to their functional roles within society, thereby oversimplifying them. There is a growing body of literature arguing that social institutions and structures serve a variety of functions, and their effects can sometimes be contradictory and varied.

Considering only functional aspects may overlook the unintended consequences of institutions’ actions and the complexities and nuances of social interactions.

5. Neglecting Inequality and Conflict:

Functionalism may overlook or minimize the importance of social conflict, power struggles, and social inequalities. Even though the theory emphasizes the role of social institutions in maintaining stability, it may not adequately address how some institutions perpetuate social inequalities and benefit certain groups at the expense of others.

As a result of neglecting social conflict, it can be difficult to understand the root causes of social problems and the necessity for social change to address them.

6. Limited Micro-Level Analysis:

Functionalism primarily focuses on macro-level analysis, exploring broad social structures and their effects on individuals and groups. It is valuable to understand society through the lens of this perspective, but it can overlook the importance of individual interactions and experiences at the micro level.

Individual agency, motivations, and interactions within specific social contexts often provide a better understanding of social phenomena and behaviors.

Contemporary Applications of Functionalism

The concept of functionalism continues to be relevant and useful in contemporary sociology:

1. Comparative Studies:

Different societies are often studied using functionalism in order to understand how their social institutions operate and contribute to their well-being.

2. Social Policy and Reform:

Functionalism can provide insights into the functions that institutions should fulfill in order to promote social cohesion and stability.

3. Organizational Analysis:

It explains how different components work together to accomplish goals in organizations by using functionalism.

4. System Thinking:

Functionalism’s emphasis on interdependence and interconnectedness has influenced the field of sociology, where society is viewed as an interconnected system.

Ultimately, functionalism is an important theoretical perspective in sociology that examines the interrelationships and functions of society’s various components in order to understand it. Within society, social order, and stability play a major role, according to the book.

Despite criticisms, functionalism remains relevant and influential in shaping our understanding of social dynamics and the role of social institutions in maintaining cohesive societies.

MCQs related to Functionalism

Some of the MCQs related to Functionalism are as follows:

1. Functionalism is a theoretical perspective in sociology that emphasizes:

  • a) Social conflict and power struggles.
  • b) Individual agency and free will.
  • c) The importance of social structure and interdependence.
  • d) Social inequality and exploitation.

Answer: c) The importance of social structure and interdependence.

2.  Which sociologist is often considered the father of sociology and laid the foundation for functionalism?

  • a) Karl Marx
  • b) Max Weber
  • c) Emile Durkheim
  • d) Herbert Spencer

Answer: c) Emile Durkheim

3. Functionalism focuses on understanding society by examining the __________ and __________ of its various components.

  • a) conflicts; power dynamics
  • b) functions; dysfunctions
  • c) social classes; economic structures
  • d) historical context; cultural norms

Answer: b) functions; dysfunctions

4. Which term is used to describe the unintended and hidden consequences of social institutions in functionalism?

  • a) Social cohesion
  • b) Social order
  • c) Manifest functions
  • d) Latent functions

Answer: d) Latent functions

5. Functionalism is criticized for:

  • a) Overemphasizing social change and instability.
  • b) Neglecting individual agency and the potential for social change.
  • c) Ignoring the positive functions of social institutions.
  • d) Focusing solely on micro-level interactions.

Answer: b) Neglecting individual agency and the potential for social change.

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Bijisha Prasain

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