Organizational Behavior – Definition and Importance of OB | Management Notes

Organizational Behavior

What is meant by Organizational Behavior?

Organizational behavior (OB) is a broad field of business study that examines how people behave in an organization and how managers can influence them to act in specific ways that are beneficial to the organization. The study of organizational behavior is influenced by many disciplines, including management theory, psychology, and efficiency analysis. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly what organizational behavior is or how it works, but key components are leadership, culture, structure, and communication.

It is very important to study organizational behavior because it provides an understanding of why people behave as they do in organizations. In any organization, the importance of organizational behavior has tremendous necessities. Organizational Behavior helps us to study human being and their complex nature in organizations by identifying the causes and effects of that behavior. Having the concept and knowledge of Organizational Psychology helps to scientifically study human behavior in the organizational settings. The Organizational structure also affects the organizational behavior because it  defines how tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated in organizations.

There are various reasons for studying organizational behavior because the relevance of organizational behavior in today’s business environment can’t be separated. Along with the various benefits of organizational behavior, there exist limitations of organizational behavior too. But there is a huge scope of organizational behavior in the long run in the future. The main objective of Organizational Behavior is to understand the human interactions in an organization, find what is driving it, and influence it for getting better results in attaining business goals.

Organizational behavior (OB) examines the effect of individuals, groups, and structures on an organization’s behavior. The findings of this study can greatly benefit an organization. Organizational behavior is the study of how organization performance is affected by the behavior of its members. Organizational behavior focuses on employment issues, such as employment, work, leaves, turnover, productivity, and human performance. Motivation, leadership behavior, power dynamics, interpersonal communication, group dynamics, learning attitudes, perceptions, conflicts, work design, and work stress are topics covered by Organizational Behavior.

This course will introduce you to a variety of organizational behavior theories and concepts. It is common for people to share “facts” or suggestions that are based on human behavior or organizational needs as facts about both the ways people behave and how they think. One example is “two heads are better than one”. However, these statements are not always true. Organizational Behavior’s off-line objective is therefore to replace traditional ideas. Studies of organizational behavior can benefit managers since they focus on methods to increase productivity, decrease absenteeism, and boost job satisfaction. The purpose of Organization Behavior is to enable managers to lead ethically. Through organizational behavior, better behavior predictions can be made.

Objectives of Organizational Behavior (OB) 

  • The establishment of a social system in the organization.
  • To assess employee motivation.
  • Encouraging employees to work enthusiastically for the organization.
  • Creating an environment conducive to effective leadership development.
  • Employees should be taught effective group behavior.
  • To identify the reasons for conflict and to resolve the conflict.
  • Finding out the reasons for frustration and reducing or eliminating them.
  • Increasing the morale of employees.
  • Maintaining a work-friendly organizational environment.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine how to develop an organization effectively.

Why is Organizational Behavior(OB) important?

Some of the importance of Organizational Behavior (OB) in any type of organizations is as follows:

  1. Organizational Behavior helps in understanding Organization and Employees in a better way which supports Organizational behavior management.
  2. Organizational Behavior helps in motivating employees.
  3. Organizational Behavior helps in improving Industrial / Labor relations.
  4. Organizational Behavior helps in predicting and controlling Human Behavior.
  5. Organizational Behavior helps in the effective utilization of Human Resources.

1. Organizational Behavior Management

The study of  OB helps to understand the organization and people in a better way. OB is important it helps to develop a friendly relationship between organization and employees creating a proper working environment in an organization. This helps in employee commitment as well as maintains Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Studying OB provides a better understanding of the organization structure and organization culture as well which further supports organizational behavior management. Similarly, studying Organizational Behavior topics helps to find out the factor causing the behavior, and helps to apply different strategies to control the critical behavior which harms the organization.

2. OB helps in motivating employees

The importance of organizational behavior (OB) cannot be neglected because studying Organizational Behavior helps managers to motivate the employees bringing good organizational performance automatically leading to job satisfaction. This helps to achieve the organizational goals properly as we cannot neglect the importance of employee behavior in an organization. Organizational behavior: improving performance and commitment in the workplace. One of the example of Organizational Citizenship Behavior is Civic Virtue which creates higher job satisfaction and yields better job performance from employees as they feel they are the part of the organization as the same way they are the part of the country.

3. Industrial or Labour relations can be improved with the help of OB

Studying Organizational Behavior(OB) helps to improve industrial/labor relations. Organizational Behavior Management helps in understanding the root cause of the problem, predict its future course of action and control its negative consequences. As managers are aware of the positive and negative consequences of the behavior, it enables managers to maintain friendly relations with their employees which creates peace and harmony in the organization.

4. Organizational Behavior helps in predicting and controlling Human Behavior

Studying OB helps in the study of human behavior as well as supports in controlling it. It is the one of the most important reasons for studying Organizational Behavior. Organizational behavior: improving performance and commitment in the workplace. Organizational behavior and human decision processes are to some extent related to each other. Knowledge of Organizational Behavior research is very much important for the management students who are going to have a career as a successful manager. If all the Organizational Behavior theories are studied properly then it helps to bring organizational effectiveness. 

5. Human resources can effectively be utilized with the help of OB

Studying Organizational Behavior (OB) helps in the effective utilization of Human Resources. Knowledge of and nature of Organisational Behaviour helps managers to manage people’s behavior and the organization effectively. Likewise, it enables managers to inspire and motivate employees toward higher productivity and better results as the manager is able to analyze and understand the nature and behavior of his employees. After the employees are provided with their job description it becomes easy to analyze their behavior in the organization. Therefore the essentials of organizational behavior cannot be denied.

Forces affecting organisational behaviour are /
What are the 4 elements of organizational behavior?

The four key elements of Organizational Behavior (OB) are as follows:

  1. People
  2. Structure
  3. Technology
  4. External Environment

4 elements of organizational behavior

a) People : In any organization, people are the platform for interaction and behavior. Individuals and groups constitute people. Human behavior and action identifies, recognizes and develops the interactive relations towards societal attitudes and behaviors.

b) Structure : In every organization, there is a structure, which describes the overall structure for roles, rules, relations, hierarchy, and authority. In addition, it also involves the grouping of jobs, assigning jobs within divisions and units, and assigning workers tasks. Therefore, it influences behavior of employees in an organization.

c) Technology : The process of converting input into output is called technology. It provides the resources with which people work, as well as affecting their tasks. Technology allows people to do more work in a more efficient manner. Consequently, technology can also influence people’s behavior, so managing technology is an important role for any organization.

d) External Environment : Every organization operates within an external and internal environment. Within each organization are a number of resources, a structure, culture, etc. The external environment consists of economics, politics, socioculture, and technology. The various factors influence one another in complicated ways. Therefore, the environment becomes a key element in the study of organizational behavior.

Levels of Organizational Behavior

 

The behavior of people can be analyzed using Organizational Behavior at three levels. The three basic levels of analysis in organizational behavior are:

  •  Individual Level Analysis
  • Group Level Analysis
  • Organization System-Level Analysis

Models of Organizational Behavior

What are the five models of organizational behavior?

The five models of organizational behavior are as follows:

a) Autocratic model

The autocratic model is based on strength, power, and formal authority. An autocratic organization is one in which the people in control of the tasks in the organisation (management/owners) have formal authority over the employees who work for them. Employees at lower levels carry little responsibility for the work performed. Since key decisions are made at the top management level, their ideas and innovations are not generally welcomed.  Read More……

b) Custodial model 

A custodial model focuses on providing economic security for employees through wages and other benefits that will create employee loyalty and motivation. In some countries, many professional companies offer health benefits, corporate cars, salary packaging, and so on – these are all incentives designed to attract and retain quality employees. Organizers believe that by increasing worker skills, motivating employees, and leveraging employee expertise, they will have a competitive advantage. Read More……

c) Supportive model

Unlike the two earlier approaches, the supportive model is aimed at aspiring leaders. The custodial model doesn’t rely on control and authority (the autocratic model) or on incentives (the autocratic model), but rather on the manager-employee relationship and how employees are treated on a day-to-day basis. An autocratic approach is opposed by this approach, which holds that employees are self-motivated and can contribute value and insight to the organization beyond just their day-to-day duties. Motivating employees with a positive work environment where they can express their ideas is the aim of the model. Consequently, the employees have some type of “buy-in” to the organization and its direction.

d) Collegial model

Teamwork is the foundation of the collegial model – everyone works together as colleagues (hence the name). A corporate culture and overall environment that aligns with this model needs to be created, where everyone is actively participating – it is not about job titles and status – everyone is encouraged to work together to build a better company. Managers are responsible for fostering teamwork and creating positive, energetic workplaces. The manager can be viewed as the “coach” of the team.

As a coach, my goal is to make the team perform well overall, rather than focusing on my own performance or that of specific individuals. In businesses with big market changes and where ideas and innovation are key factors of competitive advantage, the collegial model is quite beneficial. This can be effective in marketing teams, research and development, technology/software, and really anywhere that needs to come up with new solutions.

e) System model

System models are the final form of organization models. Out of the five models presented here, this is the most contemporary form. In the system model, the organization considers the overall structure and team environment, as well as each individual’s talents, potential, and goals. The system model seeks to balance the goals of individuals with the goals of the organization.

The majority of employees seek good remuneration, job security, and a positive work environment where the organization contributes to the community and/or its customers. We believe a successful manager-employee partnership is one where everyone feels that they are part of the vision and part of the team.

Goals of Organizational Behavior

The goals of Organizational Behavior can be classified as below:

  • Describe
  • Understand
  • Predict and
  • Control

Steps of Organizational Behavior Modification

Behavior modification is the process that involves making specific behavior occur more or less often by systematically managing its cues and consequences. The modern behaviorist places great emphasis on operant conditioning to motivate individuals and mold their behavior. Behavior modification, or OB MOD, uses various reinforcements to influence individual behavior. OB Mod is derived and developed from the work of B.F. Skinner. Managers can use this technique to eliminate or modify undesirable behavior and replace it with behavior that is more compatible with achieving goals.

In simple terms, OB Mod is a technique for modifying the behavior of organizational members, so that they engage in desirable and undesirable behaviors and replace them with behaviors that are more favorable. Motivation and enhancing organizational effectiveness can be achieved by using it. The Steps of Organizational Behavior Modification are as below:

1) Identification of Critical Behavior

The first step in the OB Mod is to identify performance-related behaviors. The behavior should be identified as desirable or undesirable from the point of view of the organization. Following that, critical behaviors should be given due consideration, as they contribute greatly to the employees’ performance. Through discussions with the particular employee and his immediate superior, who are intimately familiar with the job behaviors, it is possible to identify critical behaviors. Attendance or absenteeism, tardiness or promptness, complaints or constructive criticism, listening to or not listening to instructions are some of the critical behaviors that affect job performance. By modifying these behaviors, it could result in better work outcomes. The critical behavior should be paid attention to since it keeps occurring repeatedly.

2) Measurement Of Behavior

The manager must now measure how often these critical behaviors are observed over time after identifying the critical behaviors of the employees. Both observation and record analysis can be used to do this. If the frequency is within the acceptable limit, it will require no action, but if it exceeds the acceptable limit, it will need immediate attention. The measurement of behavior will also help the managers in determining the success in changing the employees’ behavior.

3) Identifying and Analyzing Behavioral consequences

A functional analysis will have to be performed by the managers next. The purpose of this analysis is to find out what circumstances lead to certain types of behavior, what are the consequences of such behavior, etc. Identifying the consequences of a behavior is important since these consequences affect subsequent behavior. A functional analysis should attempt to uncover the competing contingencies affecting each behavior as well, since some contingent consequences seem to affect critical behavior only on the surface.

4) Develop and apply intervention strategy

Identifying critical behaviors and identifying the factors that cause them is the first step toward developing an effective intervention strategy. There are several strategies available at this stage. Some of these strategies include positive reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Different strategies will be used in different situations. The frequency of the resulting behavior is measured after a strategy has been developed and implemented. After a behavior change has occurred in the right direction, a reinforcement schedule that maintains the desired behavior will be selected by the manager.

5) Evaluate performance

OB Mod’s final step is to evaluate whether the intervention strategies are working properly. Modification of behavior is intended to improve performance by changing undesirable behaviors. If undesirable behavior has been replaced with desirable behavior, evaluation will reveal whether this has been achieved. A permanent or temporary change in behavior has occurred. Additionally, the evaluation will show whether or not the performance has improved. If there is a positive change, that indicates that the interventions are successful. A minor change, however, may necessitate a different and more appropriate strategy.

 

Organizational Citizenship Behavior Definition

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) that has been studied since 1970s is defined as the voluntary commitment of the person within an organization or company that is not part of his or her contractual tasks. It refers to discretionary, non-required contributions by members to the organizations that employ them. It describes all the positive and constructive employee actions and behaviors that aren’t part of their formal job description. The five most common types of Organizational Citizenship Behavior defined by Dennis Organ in the year 1988 while studying on organizational citizenship behavior are altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, and civic virtue.

1) Altruism

Altruism is defined as the desire to help or otherwise assist another individual, while not expecting a reward in compensation for that assistance. A common example outside of a business setting would be someone who drives a neighbor to work when their car has broken down, while not expecting as money or favors in compensation. In a business setting altruistic behavior is generally related to the work or project that the business group is working on.

2) Courtesy

Courtesy is defined as behavior which is polite and considerate towards other people. Courtesy outside of a workplace setting includes behavior such as asking how someone’s morning has been or asking after the welfare of a neighbor’s child. In a business context courtesy is usually exhibited through behaviors such as inquiring about personal subjects that a coworker has previously brought up, asking if a coworker is having any trouble with a certain work related project, and informing coworkers about prior commitments or any other problems that might cause them to reduce their workload or be absent from work.

3) Sportsmanship

Sportsmanship is defined as exhibiting no negative behavior when something does not go a planned or when something is being perceived as annoying difficult, frustrating or otherwise negative. Outside of a business context, sportsmanship is most commonly associated with sports and games poor sportsmanship, for example, might occur when a player on a soccer team swears stomps and argues when their team loses a soccer game.

4) Conscientiousness

Conscientiousness is defined as behavior that suggests a reasonable level of self-control and discipline, which extends beyond the minimum requirements expected in that situation. In the context of a business setting, conscientiousness is observed when an employee not only meets their employer’s requirements – such as coming into work on time and completing assignments on time–but exceeds them.

5) Civic Virtue

Civic virtue is defined as behavior which exhibits how well a person represents an organization with which they are associated, and how well that person supports their organization outside of an official capacity.

Individual Behavior as Input-Output System

Individual behavior is complex, dynamic and changed by various environmental factors, inherited and learned social factor. IB is affected by way of information collection from the environment, process it through psychology, cognitive and physiological system and finally response to situation. It may be covert or overt perspective. Covert perspective is unobservable since it is process of mental and psychological factor. Whereas, overt perspective is observable behavior physically. IB is directed to goal and helps to understand organizational behavior. IB focus on need and desires. Thus, task, resources, and skill should match every individual and subordinates. The conceptual framework for understanding IB is as follows.

  • Input

Individual receives information from environmental stimuli through human senses. When individual receives information they are started to show in behavior. Individual receives internal stimuli through heredity and external stimuli through social factors.

1. Internal Stimuli
Internal stimuli exist in individual which helps to receive, understand and predict the information received from internal environment. They affect individual behavior and reaction such as;

  • Personal characteristics : It involves age, gender, length of service in organization, marital status, emotional intelligence, each factor has relationship with each other which affect IB.
  • Personality : It is the traits and qualities in individual like physical fitness, self- confidence, intelligence, sense of responsibility, vision, foresight, flexibility, human character etc.
  • Emotion : Emotion is the feeling derived from circumstances, experience, relationship etc. it is affective state of consciousness like joy, sorrow, fear, hate etc. it is affected by psychological and behavioral change.
  • Values : It is individual sense of right and wrong, good or bad, desirable or undesirable. It is element of judgment. It is stable and long lasting. Culture is the principle source of value.
  • Beliefs : It is psychological foundation of perception and attitude developed through past experiences and learning. They are based on knowledge, opinion and faith and are developed through cultural and functional factor. They provide continuity to personality and provide meaning to perception.
  • Attitude : It is judgment about object, people or events that may be favorable or unfavorable. It reflects how one feels about something. It is specific as it is concerned to only object, people and events. It is unstable because it changes on the basis of time and situation.
  • Ability : It involves physical and mental skill to deal with complex problem and tactful situation to show human efficiency. Training and other efficiency development program can strengthen ability on task.

2. External Stimuli
Environment provides forces that senses through hearing, seeing, smelling, touching and tasting. It includes physical and socio-cultural factors. Physical factors are organizational climate, office environment working condition etc. socio-cultural factors are management system, culture etc. The handling of external environment shows the individual behavior.

  • Processing

It is interpretation part of individual behavior. It shows how individual receives information from external factor understand and predict them. Information is collected from environment as input and make detail study of such information and response properly. It meditates between input and output of IB. it consists of;

  • Physiological Process : It is parental and heredity in nature. They are biological foundation like nervous system and sense organ. It affects individual sensing information from environment interpretation and way of responding.
  • Cognitive Process : It is the act of knowing and understanding the information from external environment. It affects processing of information. It involves basic elements like perception, thinking, decision making which focus on high mental process of assessing the information.
  • Psychological Process : It involves learning and motivation. Learning is permanent change in behavior as result of information and experience. Motivation is encouraging and inspiring performance toward goal achievement. They are the key determinant of IB on job.

  • Output

Output is behavioral response. They are outcome of input and processing components of IB. individual information from environmental stimuli and analyze such information through psychological, cognitive and physiological process and finally it gives response in term of behavior. Individual shows behavior in covert and overt. IB is important to understand organizational behavior. Outcome can be seen in form of productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship. Thus, manager must understand, predict and manage behavior for effective management of Organizational Behavior (OB).

  • Feedback

OB is continuous till the functioning and existence of organization. It is necessary to evaluate IB. If expected output is achieved, guidance for better performance is given. If deficiency is found in output, it is necessary to improve future performance to gain expected output.

Determinants of Organizational Behavior

  • Beliefs

Beliefs is psychological foundation and internal feeling that something is true, even though it unproved and irrational. It refers to long term perception or attitude toward an object that individual develop through past experience and learning. They are based on knowledge, opinion and faith. Belief provides big impact on individual behavior. Beliefs are mental attitude established by some truth, moral or facts presented by parents, teachers, peer, reference group, experts etc. belief is distinct from judgment, which is conscious mental act that involves arriving conclusion about proposition.

Development of Beliefs : Belief is based on knowledge, opinion, and faith. Individual beliefs develop through two factors. They are explained below:

  • Culture factor :Culture factor impacts beliefs. These factors are tradition, custom and value considered by individual in society. Such cultural value is gained by parent, peer, teacher, reference group etc. change in cultural value affect individual’s beliefs and behavior.
  •  Functional factor : To fulfill needs and expectation, individual involve in organization to do work. In this course they come to interaction with manager, colleagues, and junior. They can get new idea, concept, knowledge and technology. These factors develop and change individual beliefs and organization.

Significance of Beliefs

  • Help to determine reaction : Belief helps to determine the action and reaction of event, object and individual. Individual understand the matter on basis of set beliefs and values. Thus, on basis of understanding they provide reaction about the subject matter.
  • Facilitate for standard : Beliefs are important source of standard of behavior. Every culture involves some standard that is followed by all individuals. The consideration of cultural, custom and tradition values facilitate for maintaining standard behavior.
  • Show personality : Personality is outcome of internal and external traits of individual like family member, peer, teachers, reference group, academic qualification, job experience etc. Personality also may be inherited and it affects individual behavior.
  • Source of motivation : When employee believes that hard working is supportive for achieving organizational goal and individual need, they work for better performance. Thus, employees are motivated for better performance.
  • Influence of action : People act or react on the basis of beliefs developed through social interaction, education and job experience. They do action in the basis of their understanding about the subject matters.
  • Support on career choice : Beliefs are important means that support for career and career planning. When individual belief academic qualification is discipline to support their future career, they do hard work on concern area to get depth knowledge. It facilitates for future profession.

  • Attitude

Attitude is judgmental statement concerning object, people and events either favorable or unfavorable. It reflects the feeling about something. Personality and attitude are genetic but it may change by influence of people whom he desires, respect or fear. Attitude is specific and less stable, specific because it is concerned with people, events and objects. Also it changes on the basis of time and situation. Attitude is gained from parents, teachers, senior, colleagues, professor, reference group etc. Other factors such as experience, education, media, knowledge, environmental factor also affect attitude. It affects individual behavior and motivation. People are willing to change the attitude as per their role model. Thus, companies endorsed popular personalities, leading player, film stars etc. It helps to develop the positive attitude towards their products among the public.

Components of Attitude

  • Affective Components: It is emotional or feeling segment of attitude people, object and events. It may be positive, negative or neutral. Attitude of one person affects other. Managing the attitude of employees help to achieve the target of organization.
  • Behavioral Components : Behavioral components focus on way of behavior toward something. It is beliefs, opinion, knowledge or information held by individual. It shows the intension towards people, events and objects, either favorable or unfavorable. It is short run behavior. For example; company focus on short and long run attitude of customers towards their new product, which thus helps to make final decisions.
  • Cognitive Components : It is the part of attitude that control how person understand and think continuously about things. It is opinion or belief of information segment. It is related to general know how of people, object and events. It includes beliefs, models, preference and other aspect that shape out person’s interpretation of world.
    In conclusion, every individual is important to build upon individual attitude. It affects maintenance of individual relationship in society.
    For example; teenagers are lazy (cognitive), still we should not hate them (affective), but can’t allow them in library.

Types of Job related Attitude

Each person has different level of attitude in job. It studies the involvement of employees in different elements of job. The job related attitude is described below;

  • Job Satisfaction:  It is the collection feeling that individuals holds toward his job, either positive or negative. Job satisfaction is concerned with some specific dimension such as, equitable compensation, work, promotion, opportunities, supervision, peers, recognition, relation between responsibility and compensation etc. In organization, there is inter-relation between attitude and job satisfaction.
  • Job Involvement: It is concerned with how employee is identifying with job, participation and self- performance. The aspect of attitude relates to degree of engagement of person in job and level of enthusiasm to do work. Employee should consider job as their livelihood. They give strong identification of job and maximize the effort to complete the job on specified time and standard. They take complete responsibility for better performance which minimizes supervision and controlling cost.
  • Organizational Commitment : It is emotional attachment toward organization like loyalty. It develops willingness to make effort to achieve organizational goal, success and wellbeing. Employees identify organization and maintain membership in organization for long period of time. The sources of organizational commitment are job characteristics, positive and equitable work experience, performance, payment relationship with supervisor and co-workers and working condition.

  • Values

Values represent the sense of what is right or wrong, good or bad, desirable or undesirable. They contain an element of judgment. They are stable and long lasting belief which is important to individual. They have both content and intensity attributes. The content attributes says that mode of content is important. All individual had hierarchy of value that forms their value system. Their system is identified by considering the relative importance assigned for values such as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty and equality.Value in organization effects individual attitude and behavior. They take decision to stay or considering values like respect, freedom. Culture is principle source of value. Value is affected by teachers, parents, peer, reference group etc. Value is board line in all situations. Some common business value are fairness, innovation, and community involvement.

Types of Values

From the social science research on human values, values can be identified on two basic types. They are explained below;

  •  Terminal Value : It refers to ultimate goal of individual to be achieved through his behavior in lifetime. It signifies objectives of life of person. It is desirable state of existence of individual. It includes self- respect, family security, recognition, freedom, inner harmony, comfortable life, professional excellence etc.
  • Instrumental Values : It is preferable mode of behavior to achieve terminal values. It is core value, permanent in nature, comprise personal characteristics and character traits. Such values are more important and desirable. They are desirable state of existence that individual work towards to reach there. For example; honesty, sincerity, ambition, independence, obedience, hard working, broad mind, capable, cheerful, courage, helpful, polite etc.

Cross-culture Values

There are different cross-culture dimension of work related values and behavior. They are described below;

  • Power Distance: It is acceptance of unequal distribution of power by society members. In low power distance culture, inequality is minimized, supervisors are accessible and power distance is down played. And high power distance cultures is opposite of it. Manager operating at high power values system feel powerful and vice- versa.
  • Uncertainty Avoider : It is extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoider stress rules and regulation, hard work, conformity and security. Weak uncertainty avoider are less concerned to rules, not a hard worker, less conformity and security and not seen good values.
  •  Individualism or Collectivism : Individualist culture stress independence, individual initiative and privacy focus on personal achievement. Collective culture favors interdependence and loyalty to family or society. They want to work in group with loyalty.
  • Masculinity or Feminist : Masculine culture clearly differentiates gender roles, support the dominance of men, stress of economic performance. They are decisive and assertive for achievement and recognition. Feminist culture accept equal gender role, focus on gender equality and emphasis quality of life. They try to get consensus, equality, solidarity and quality of work life.

Organizational Behavior Quiz

 

“———— are social inventions for accomplishing goals through group efforts”
a. Management
b. Organization
c. Leadership
d. Behavior

Which of the following is/are the key features of organization
a. Social invention
b. Accomplishing goals
c. Group efforts
d. All of these

A study of human behavior in organizational settings is
a. Individual behavior
b. Group behavior
c. Organizational behavior
d. None of these

Scientific Management approach is developed by
a. Elton Mayo
b. Henry Fayol
c. F.W. Taylor
d. A. Maslow

Who proposed “ bureaucratic structure” is suitable for all organization
a. Elton Mayo
b. Henry Fayol
c. F.W. Taylor
d. Max Weber

Hawthrone experiment” which was a real beginning of applied research in OB was conducted by
a. Elton Mayo
b. Henry Fayol
c. F.W. Taylor
d. Max Weber

Process or administrative theory of organization is being given by
a. Elton Mayo
b. Henry Fayol
c. F.W. Taylor
d. Max Weber

Whose concept states that interpersonal and human relations may lead to productivity
a. Elton Mayo
b. Henry Fayol
c. F.W. Taylor
d. Max Weber

Today’s organization are
a. Open system
b. Closed system
c. Open as well as closed
d. None of these

Which organization theory can be understood by IF and THEN relationship
a. System approach
b. Contingency approach
c. Process approach
d. Scientific approach

Organization Behavior is
a. An interdisciplinary approach
b. A humanistic approach
c. Total system approach
d. All of these

Organization Behavior is not a /an
a. A separate field of study
b. Applied science
c. Normative science
d. Pessimistic approach

“Cognitive theory” of learning was given by
a. Skinner
b. Pavlov
c. Tolman
d. Piajet

Extension of behavior modification into organization is called
a. Enrichment
b. Enlargement
c. OB Mod
d. OB Ext

————–is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
a. Behavior modification
b. Learning
c. Motivation
d. Skills

Which of the following is / are included as structure of human mind
a. Id
b. Ego
c. Super ego
d. All the above

———– is largely childish, irrational, never satisfied, demanding and destructive of others
a. Ego
b. Super ego
c. Negative ego
d. Id

————represent noblest thoughts, ideals etc.
a. Ego
b. Super ego
c. Negative ego
d. Id

———– is reality and practical oriented part of thinking
a. Ego
b. Super ego
c. Negative ego
d. Id

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is designed to understand
a. Perception of individual
b. Personality of individual
c. Learning of individual
d. None of these

—————- is “the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environments”
a.Attitude
b.Stress
c.Dissonance
d.Disappointment

Which of the following is/are not job related source of stress
a.Role ambiguity
b.Role overload
c.Ethical dilemmas
d.Career concerns

Which of the following is/are not organizational factors causing stress
a.Task demand
b.Role demand
c.Role conflict
d.Satisfaction

Which of the following is / are method of managing stress
a. Job relocation
b. Career counseling
c. Recreational facility
d. All the above

Which of the following is / are not a method of managing stress
a. Time management
b. Supervisor training
c. Role Analysis techniques (RAT)
d. Rorschach test

————– refers to the negotiation or an agreement between two groups
a. Contracting
b. Co-opting
c. Pressure tactics
d. None of these

Which of the following methods is/are used to solve intergroup conflicts indirectly
a. Avoidance
b. Encouragement
c. Bargaining
d. All of these

Which of the following is / are not direct method to solve intergroup conflicts
a. Problem solving
b. Domination by the management
c. Removing key figures in conflict
d. Persuasion

A technique to bring changes in the entire organization, rather man focusing attention on
individuals to bring changes easily.
a. Organizational development
b. Organizational change
c. Organizational culture
d. Organizational conflicts

Which of the following is/are OD intervention techniques
a. Sensitivity training
b. MBO
c. Quality of work life
d. All the above

Which of the following is NOT an important issue relating to goal-setting theory?
a. Goal specificity
b. Equity among workers
c. Feedback
d. Defining the goal

Behaviour, power, and conflict are central areas of study for _____________.
a. sociologist b. Anthropologists
c. Social psychologists d. Operations analysts

When a bank robber points a gun at a bank employee, his base of power is:
a. Coercive b. Punitive
c. Positional d. Authoritative

The managers of a multinational company are located in France, India, Brazil, and the United States. Which decision-making technique seems most reasonable for this organization?
a. A postal service interaction b. A brainstorming session
c. A nominal discussion d. An electronic meeting

What do we call it when we judge someone on the basis of our perception?
a. Stereotyping b. Categorizing
c. Halo effect d. Prototyping

Sobha is an honest and straightforward person. She believes her employees are all similarly honest and straightforward, ignoring signs that they may be manipulating her. What perceptual shortcut is Sobha most likely using?
a. Contrast effect b. Halo effect
c. Stereotyping d. Projection

Sathish has a low absenteeism rate. He takes responsibility for his health and has good health habits. He is likely to have a(an):
a. Internal locus of control b. External locus of control
c. Core locus of control d. High emotional stability level

Raju believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has been used in this case?
a. The halo effect
b. The contrast effect
c. Projection
d. Stereotyping

Mr. Manoj, Manager ABC Company found that skills of workers and machinery used by them as compared to the competitors in the market are obsolete within a year, which type of challenge ABC Company is facing?
a. High Quality and Low Quality b. Globalization and Culture
c. Rapid Pace of Change d. Multiple Stakeholders

According to Robert Katz, when managers have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations, they possess _____________ skills.
a. Technical b. Leadership
c. Problem-solving d. Conceptual

What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize?
a. Tangible, verifiable and measurable
b. Achievable, controllable and profitable
c. Challenging, emotional and constructive
d. Hierarchical, attainable and effective

Today’s managers understand that the success of any effort at improving quality and productivity must include _____.
a. Quality management programs
b. Customer service improvements
c. Employee’s participation
d. Manufacturing simplification

Which of the following would be least likely to pose a barrier to cross-cultural communications?
a. Tone difference
b. Word connotations
c. Political correctness
d. Differences among perceptions

Which of the following theory is proposed by Clayton Alderfer?
a. Theory X and Theory Y b. Hierarchy of Needs
c. ERG Theory d. Theory

Concept of MBO was introduced by:
a. Peter. F.Drucker
b. Mary Parker
c. Henry Fayol
d. Philip Kotler

Mr. Sunil’s one-day salary was deducted because of his uninformed leave, as he was already warned about this behaviour. It is an example of which method of shaping behaviours?
a.Reinforcement
b. Positive Reinforcement
c. punishment
d. Negative Reinforcement

While managing political behaviours in organization, the manager requires discouraging:
a. Negotiation b. Relationships
c. Self interest d. Dialogue

People with which type of personality trait commonly make poor decisions because they make them too fast?
a. Type As
b. Type Bs
c. Self-monitors
d. Extroverts

Which of the following is an environmental force that shapes personality?
a. Gender
b. Height
c. Experience
d. Brain size

Factors other than satisfaction that impact one’s decision to leave a current job include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Labour market conditions
b. Length of tenure with the organization
c. Organizational citizenship behavior
d. Expectations about alternative job opportunities

Praveen is dissatisfied with his job but believes that his supervisor is a good man who will do the right thing. Praveen has decided that if he just waits, conditions will improve. Praveen’s approach tothis problem is termed as:
a. Exit
b. Voice
c. Loyalty
d. Neglect

Which of the following leadership behaviours are identified by the path-goal theory?
a. Supportive, employee-oriented, laissez-faire and participative
b. Achievement-oriented, supportive, humanistic, and directive
c. Participative, achievement-oriented, directive, and supportive
d. Directive, participative, supportive, and laissez-faire

Which of the following is not a trait dimension in Big personality trait?
a. Extroversion
b. Agreeableness
c. Ego
d. Culture

In which stage of the conflict process does conflict become visible?
a. Illumination
b. Intentions
c. Behaviour
d. Cognition

Which dimension of Big personality traits represents artistically sensitive, refined etc.
a. Culture
b. Emotional stability
c. Conscientiousness
d. Extroversion

____________ refers to the network of personal and social relations that is developed spontaneously between people associated with each other.
a. Formal organization
b. Informal organization
c. Business organization
d. Government organization

The cognitive process through which an individual selects, organizes but misinterprets
environmental stimuli is known as_________
a. Perception
b. Projection
c. Selective Perception
d. Mis-Perception

The more consistent behaviour, the more the observer is inclined to ___.
a. Attribute it to interpretation
b. Attribute it to internal causes
c. Attribute it to consensus
d. Attribute it to external causes

Which of the following is one of the relationships proposed in expectancy theory?
a. Reward-satisfaction relationship
b. Satisfaction-performance relationship
c. Rewards-personal goals relationship
d. Effort-satisfaction relationship

In Maslow’s hierarchy needs which of the following pair of needs is ranked as” lower order needs”?
a. Physiological and safety needs
b. Physiological and social need
c. Self actualization and safety needs
d. Social and esteem needs

Maslow grouped the five needs into two categories
a. Higher-order needs and Lower-order needs.
b. Supreme needs and local needs
c. Self needs and others needs
d. Luxurious needs and comfort needs

If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, attribution theory states that the behaviour shows _____.
a. Consensus
b. Similarity
c. Reliability
d. Consistency

Your boss never gives you the benefit of the doubt. When you were late back from lunch, he assumed that you had simply taken too much time. He never considered that the elevators were out and you had to walk up flights of stairs. Your boss is guilty of _____.
a. Self-serving bias
b. Selective perception
c. Fundamental attribution error
d. Inconsistency

Mr.Sajeev rated Mr. Rajiv high in his job evaluation because both belong to same area and graduated from the same University. It is an example of:
a. Central Tendency
b. Halo effect
c. Similar-to-me effect
d. Misperception

All the following are dimensions of Intellectual ability EXCEPT:
a. Inductive reasoning
b. Dynamic strength
c. Deductive reasoning
d. Number aptitude

What sort of actions is most likely to be attributed to external causes?
a. Actions that have high distinctiveness, high consensus and high consistency
b. Actions that have high distinctiveness, high consensus and low consistency
c. Actions that have high distinctiveness, low consensus and low consistency
d. Actions that have low distinctiveness, low consistency and high consensus

A threatened strike action by a labour union to force the management to accept their demands is an example of which of the following power?
a. Referent power
b. legitimate power
c. Reward power
d. Coercive power

Which of the following departmentalization can be considered necessary in an organization where the company’s products fall into several categories with very different production methods for each category?
a. Customer
b. Production
c. Process
d. Matrix

Mr.Dirash has a job which pays an excellent salary. He has a good relationship with his peers and his supervisors. He also likes the fact that the company policy fits well with what he personally believes, and that he has received considerable recognition for his achievements at the company. Which of these factors is ‘MOST likely’ responsible for the fact that Dirash loves his job?
a. High compensation
b. Good nature of peer relationships
c. Good nature of supervisor relationships
d. Recognition for his achievements

Job appraisal is the part of_____________
a. Sociology
b. Anthropology
c. Psychology
d. Political science

Over the past two decades, business schools have added required courses on people skills to many of their curricula. Why have they done this?
a. Managers no longer need technical skills in subjects such as economics and accounting to succeed.
b. There is an increased emphasis in controlling employee behavior in the workplace.
c. Managers need to understand human behavior if they are to be effective.
d. These skills enable managers to effectively lead human resources departments.

Which of the following is most likely to be a belief held by a successful manager?
a. Technical knowledge is all that is needed for success.
b. It is not essential to have sound interpersonal skills.
c. Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.
d. Effectiveness is not impacted by human behavior.

What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviours in different situations?
a. continuity
b. integrity
c. flexibility
d. distinctiveness

What does consensus refer to in attribution theory?
a. There is general agreement about a perception.
b. Different people respond the same way in the same situation.
c. There is general agreement about how people desire to respond to the same situation.
d. Different people perceive a situation similarly.

If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, attribution theory states that the behaviour shows.
a. consensus
b. similarity
c. reliability
d. consistency

Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions?
a. Controlling
b. Planning
c. Staffing
d. organizing

Determining how tasks are to be grouped is part of which management function?
a. Planning
b. Leading
c. Controlling
d. organizing

Mintzberg concluded that managers perform different, highly interrelated roles. Which of the following is one of the broad categories into which these roles could be grouped?
a. Intrapersonal
b. Institutional
c. Decisional
d. affective

As a manager, one of James’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is James acting in when he does this?
a. leadership role
b. liaison role
c. monitor role
d. figurehead role

According to Mintzberg, one of management’s interpersonal roles is .
a. spokesperson
b. leader
c. Negotiator
d. monitor

Robert Katz identified three essential skills that managers need to have in order to reach their goals. What are these skills?
a. technical, decisional and interpersonal
b. technical, human, and conceptual
c. interpersonal, informational and decisional
d. conceptual, communication and networking

A manager is valued by her colleagues for her ability to perform effective break-even analysis on upcoming ventures. In this case, her colleagues value her for competencies that fall within which of Katz’s essential management skills categories?
a. Technical
b. Communication
c. Human
d. conceptual

According to Katz, technical skills encompass the ability to.
a. analyze and diagnose complex situations
b. exchange information and control complex situations
c. apply specialized knowledge or expertise
d. initiate and oversee complex projects

Which one of the following would not be considered a human skill in Katz’s structure?
a. Decision making.
b. Communicating
c. resolving conflicts
d. working as part of a team

According to Katz, when managers have the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations, they possess skills.
a. Technical
b. Leadership
c. problem-solving
d. conceptual

According to Fred Luthans and his associates, which of the following is considered a part of
traditional management?
a. Disciplining
b. decision making
c. exchanging routine information
d. acquiring resources

Which of Luthans’ managerial activities involves socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders?
a. traditional management
b. communicating
c. human resource management
d. networking
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While the Functions, Roles, Skills, and Activities approaches to management all differ, they all
recognize that effective and successful managers must develop which of the following?
a. People skills
b. technical skills
c. Efficiency
d. entrepreneurialism
An OB study would be least likely to be used to focus on which of the following problems?
a. an increase in absenteeism at a certain company
b. a fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant
c. a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
d. an increase in theft by employees at a retail store
If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behaviour shows.
a. Distinctiveness
b. Consensus
c. Consistency
d. continuity
Mr.Balu is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would attribution theory describe
this behaviour?
a. It shows consensus.
b. It shows similarity.
c. It shows reliability.
d. It shows consistency
Which of the following is a reason that the study of organizational behaviour is useful?
a. Human behavior does not vary a great deal between individuals and situations.
b. Human behavior is not random.
c. Human behavior is not consistent.
d. Human behavior is rarely predictable.
Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at
what level of analysis?
a. the level of the group
b. the level of the individual
c. the level of the organization
d. the level of the culture
Which behavioural science discipline is most focused on understanding individual behaviour?
a. Sociology
b. social psychology
c. Psychology
d. anthropology
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and
other animals is known as .
a. Psychiatry
b. Psychology
c. Sociology
d. organizational behavior
blends concepts from psychology and sociology.
a. Corporate strategy
b. Anthropology
c. Political science.
d. Social psychology
The science that focuses on the influence people have on one another is.
a. Psychology
b. Anthropology
c. political science
d. social psychology
Which of the following fields has most helped us understand differences in fundamental values,
attitudes, and behaviour among people in different countries?
a. Anthropology
b. Psychology
c. political science
d. operations research
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The subject of organizational culture has been most influenced by which behavioural science
discipline?
a. Anthropology
b. Psychology
c. social psychology
d. political science
Which of the following OB topics is not central to managing employees’ fears about terrorism?
a. Emotion
b. Motivation
c. Communication
d. work design
According to management guru Tom Peters, almost all quality improvement comes from of
design, manufacturing, layout, processes, and procedures.
a. Modification
b. Stratification
c. Integration
d. simplification
Today’s managers understand that the success of any effort at improving quality and productivity
must include.
a. process reengineering
b. quality management programs
c. customer service improvements
d. employees
Most valuable asset in an organization is
a. Land and building
b. Cash and bank balances
c. Human being
d. technology
What term is used to describe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an
organization?
a. Absenteeism
b. Turnover
c. Downsizing
d. truancy
______ is discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirement, but
that promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
a. Productivity
b. Motivation
c. Organizational citizenship
d. Organizational behavior
Individual-level independent variables include all of the following except.
a. Leadership
b. Learning
c. Perception
d. motivation
Which of the following statements is true about the term “ability”, as it is used in the field of
organizational behaviour?
a. It refers to an individual’s willingness to perform various tasks.
b. It is a current assessment of what an individual can do.
c. It refers exclusively to intellectual skills.
d. It refers exclusively to physical skills
Which of the following is not a biographical characteristic?
a. political affiliation
b. age
c. Sex
d. tenure
Experiments performed by Ivan Pavlov led to what theory?
a. classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. social learning
d. behavior shaping
What role did the meat play in Pavlov’s experiment with dogs?
a. an unconditioned response
b. a conditioned stimulus
c. a conditioned response
d. an unconditioned stimulus
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In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell was a/an .
a. unconditioned stimulus
b. unconditioned response
c. conditioned stimulus
d. conditioned response
Which of the following is not true of classical conditioning?
a. Classical conditioning is passive.
b. Classical conditioning can explain simple reflexive behaviors.
c. Learning a conditioned response involves building an association between a conditioned
stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
d. A neutral stimulus takes on the properties of a conditioned stimulus.
Operant conditioning argues that .
a. behavior is reflexive
b. behavior is unlearned
c. behavior is a function of its consequences
d. the tendency to repeat a behavior is very strong
Which of the following researchers thought that reinforcement was the central factor involved in
behavioural change?
a. Pavlov
b. Fayol
c. Skinner
d. Deming
According to operant conditioning, when behaviour is not reinforced, what happens to the
probability of that behaviour occurring again?
a. It increases.
b. It declines.
c. It remains unchanged.
d. It becomes zero.
What do we call the view that we can learn both through observation and direct experience?
a. situational learning theory
b. classical learning
c. social learning theory
d. the Pavlov principle
Four processes have been found to determine the influence that a model will have on an
individual. Which of the following is not one of those processes?
a. attention processes
b. retention processes
c. motor reproduction processes
d. consequential processes
Which of the following processes deals with how well an individual remembers a model’s action
after it is no longer readily available?
a. Attitudinal
b. Retention
c. motor reproduction
d. reinforcement
What do we call the practice of reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired
behaviour?
a. Modeling
b. Shaping
c. classical conditioning
d. social learning
Suspending an employee for dishonest behaviour is an example of which method of shaping
behaviour?
a. Extinction
b. negative reinforcement
c. punishment
d. reaction
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The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as
a. classical conditioning
b. self-management
c. Reengineering
d. OB Mod
Who said “Give me a child at birth and I can make him into anything you want”?
a. B.F. Skinner
b. Ivan Pavlov
c. Sigmund Freud
d. James Emery
Syam is always late coming to work and the manager cut his increment. This is an example of.
a. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
c. Punishment
d. extinction
What is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in
order to give meaning to their environment?
a. Interpretation
b. environmental analysis
c. Outlook
d. perception
Two people see the same thing at the same time yet interpret it differently. Where do the factors
that operate to shape their dissimilar perceptions reside?
a. the perceivers
b. the target
c. the timing
d. the context
What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB?
a. the perceptions people form about each other
b. the perceptions people form about their employer
c. the perceptions people form about their culture
d. the perceptions people form about society
What is the name of the theory that deals with how we explain behaviour differently depending
on the meaning we assign to the actor?
a. behavioral theory
b. judgment theory
c. selective perception theory
d. attribution theory
In attribution theory, what is distinctiveness?
a. whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in different situations
b. whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations
c. whether an individual displays consistent behaviors in similar situations
d. whether an individual displays different behaviors in similar situations
………………..is once view of reality
a. Attitude
b. Perception
c. Outlook
d. Personality
…………is the dynamic organization within the individual that determine his unique adjustment
to the environment
a. Perception
b. Attitude
c. Behavior
d. personality
Which is also known as a non- reinforcement
a. Punishment
b. Negative reinforcement
c. Extinction
d. all the above
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Most of the learning that takes place in the Class room is
a. Classical conditioning
b. Operant conditioning
c. Cognitive learning
d. Social learning
…………..are those factors that exists in the environment as perceived by the individual
a. Physiological drive
b. Psychological drive
c. Cue stimuli
d. Reinforcement
…………..is the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that
contradict to our beliefs
a. Perceptual context
b. Selective perception
c. Halo effect
d. Stereotyping
The extent to which individuals consistently regard themselves as capable, worthy, successful etc. is
a. Self esteem
b. Authoritarianism
c. Tolerance for ambiguity
d. Workhollism
A learned pre-disposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with
respect to a given object
a. Perception
b. Attitude
c. Behavior
d. personality
“I don’t like that company”- is ………components of attitude.
a. Affective component
b. Cognitive component
c. Intentional component
d. None of these
“They are the worst firm I have ever dealt with” is ………components of attitude.
a. Affective component
b. Cognitive component
c. Intentional component
d. None of these
“I will never do business with them again” is ………components of attitude.
a. Affective component
b. Cognitive component
c. Intentional component
d. None of these
Which of the following is a method of measuring attitude?
a. Opinion survey
b. Interview
c. Scaling techniques
d. All the above
Basis of “Autocratic Model of OB is
a. Economic resources
b. Power
c. Leadership
d. Partnership
Basis of “Custodial Model of OB is
a. Economic resources
b. Power
c. Leadership
d. Partnership
Basis of “Supportive Model of OB is
a. Economic resources
b. Power
c. Leadership
d. Partnership
Basis of “Collegial Model of OB is
a. Economic resources
b. Power
c. Leadership
d. Partnership
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Managerial orientation of “Autocratic Model” of OB is
a. Authority
b. Money
c. Support
d. Teamwork
Managerial orientation of “Supportive Model” of OB is
a. Authority
b. Money
c. Support
d. Teamwork
Managerial orientation of “Custodial model” of OB is
a. Authority
b. Money
c. Support
d. Teamwork
Managerial orientation of “Collegial Model” of OB is
a. Authority
b. Money
c. Support
d. Teamwork
Employees needs met by Autocratic Model is
a. Subsistence
b. Security
c. Status and Recognition
d. Self-actualization
Employees needs met by Custodial Model is
a. Subsistence
b. Security
c. Status and Recognition
d. Self-actualization
Employees needs met by Supportive Model is
a. Subsistence
b. Security
c. Status and Recognition
d. Self-actualization
Employees needs met by Collegial Model is
a. Subsistence
b. Security
c. Status and Recognition
d. Self-actualization
” Person-Job fit” means
a. Persons physical fitness match with the job
b. Persons skills match with the job
c. Persons contributions match with the incentives offered by the organization
d. Persons education match with the job
Which of the following is not an attribute of psychological individual difference?
a. Motivation
b. Learning
c. Personality
d. Complexion
Which of the following is not an attribute of physiological individual difference?
a. Appearance
b. Complexion
c. Attitude
d. Body shape
…………is a person’s belief about his chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task
a. Self esteem
b. Job satisfaction
c. Self efficacy
d. Self appraisal
Select the correct hierarchical order of qualities of an individual
a. Ability-Skills- Aptitude- Competency
b. Aptitude-Ability- Skills- Competency
c. Skills- Aptitude- Competency- Ability
d. Competency-Ability-Skills- Aptitude
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As per Stimulus-Response Model, input for behaviour process is
a. Drive
b. Organism
c. Stimuli
d. Response
S-O- B-A Model combines the S-R Model and
a. Stimuli
b. Response
c. Human being
d. drive
An enduring attribute of a person that appears constantly in a variety of situation is
a. behavior
b. trait
c. attitude
d. culture
Sociable, talkative, assertive etc. are features of
a. introversion
b. agreeableness
c. extroversion
d. conscientiousness
Good natured, cooperative and trusting are the features of
a. introversion
b. agreeableness
c. extroversion
d. conscientiousness
Responsible, dependable, persistent and achievement oriented are features of
a. introversion
b. agreeableness
c. extroversion
d. conscientiousness
Imaginative, artistically sensitive etc. are features of
a. Openness
b. agreeableness
c. extroversion
d. conscientiousness
Tensed, insecurity and nervousness are features of
a. emotional instability
b. agreeableness
c. extroversion
d. conscientiousness
Some people strongly believe that each person have control of his own life. This is
a. extroversion
b. conscientiousness
c. internal locus of control
d. external locus of control
Some people think that what happens to them is a result of fate, chance, luck etc. this is
a. extroversion
b. conscientiousness
c. internal locus of control
d. external locus of control
……..is the tendency of individual, which directs them to be inward and process ideas and
thought within themselves
a. extroversion
b. Introversion
c. internal locus of control
d. external locus of control
………..persons are likely to be most successful in the field of advertisement, sales department,
public relation etc
a. extroversion
b. conscientiousness
c. internal locus of control
d. external locus of control
………..persons are likely to be most successful in the field of research and work based on
abstract idea.
a. extroversion
b. introversion
c. internal locus of control
d. external locus of control
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———–indicates the level of uncertainty that people can tolerate to work efficiently without
experiencing undue stress
a. Risk propensity
b. Authoritarianism
c. Tolerance for ambiguity
d. Workahollism
The extent to which individual believes in importance of power, status difference in organization
a. Self esteem
b. Authoritarianism
c. Tolerance for ambiguity
d. Workahollism
—————is the extent of rigidity of a person’s belief
a. Authoritarianism
b. Dogmatism
c. Risk propensity
d. Tolerance for ambiguity
————is the degree to which an individual is willing to take chances and risky decisions
a. Authoritarianism
b. Dogmatism
c. Risk propensity
d. Tolerance for ambiguity
————-is manipulating and influencing others as a primary way of achieving one’s goal
a. Authoritarianism
b. Dogmatism
c. Risk propensity
d. Machiavellianism
————persons feel chronic sense of time urgency
a. Authoritarianism
b. Dogmatism
c. Type A
d. Type B
————–persons are easy going people and do not feel time urgency
a. Authoritarianism
b. Dogmatism
c. Type A
d. Type B
———-is an attitude reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled by his work
a. Motivation
b. Job satisfaction
c. Contribution
d. Cognitive dissonance
Maslow’s “basic needs” are also known as
a. Social needs
b. Esteem needs
c. Safety needs
d. Physiological needs
In Maslow’s Need hierarchy which needs are shown between Esteem needs and Safety needs
a. Social needs
b. Esteem needs
c. Security needs
d. Basic need
ERG theory of motivation was proposed by
a. Maslow
b. F. Herzberg
c. Alderfer
d. Mc Gregor
Under ERG theory, “R” stands for———
a. Rationality
b. Responsibility
c. Remuneration
d. Relatedness
Dual structure approach of motivation is developed by
a. Maslow
b. F. Herzberg
c. Alderfer
d. Mc Gregor
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Under Herzberg’s theory, factors causing dissatisfaction is called
a. Demotivators
b. Negative stimuli
c. Hygiene factors
d. Defectors
Hygiene factors are
a. Satisfiers
b. Maintenance factors
c. Defectors
d. All of these
In Two Factor theory, “Salary” coming under ————-
a. Satisfiers
b. Maintenance factors
c. Both of these
d. None of above a and b
Who propounded X and Y theory of motivation
a. Maslow
b. F. Herzberg
c. Alderfer
d. Mc Gregor
————— theory believes that employees dislike work
a. X theory
b. Y theory
c. Z theory
d. None of these
According to ———-employees love work as play or rest
a. X theory
b. Y theory
c. Z theory
d. None of these
Z theory is a Japanese approach of motivation developed by
a. Mc Clelland
b. William Ouchi
c. Alderfer
d. Mc Gregor
According to ———- the managers and workers should work together as partners and of equal
importance for the organizations success
a. X theory
b. Y theory
c. Z theory
d. Factor theory
Which one of the following need is not coming under Mc Clelland theory of motivation?
a. Need for power
b. Need for achievement
c. Need for affiliation
d. Need for actualization
Which one is not a Need Based Theory of motivation?
a. Maslow’s Theory
b. F. Herzberg’s theory
c. Alderfer’s theory
d. Vroom’s theory
Which one is not a Process Based Theory of motivation?
a. Porter Lawler theory
b. Mc Clelland’s theory
c. Stacy Adams theory
d. Vroom’s theory
Who developed Equity theory of motivation?
a. Porter Lawler
b. Mc Clelland
c. Stacy Adams
d. Vroom
Porter Lawler Model is an extension of
a. Maslow’s theory
b. Mc Clelland’s theory
c. Stacy Adams theory
d. Vroom’s theory
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Organizational Behavior Page
Cognitive Evaluation Theory of motivation is introduced by
a. Stacy Adams
b. Charms
c. Ouchy
d. F W Taylor
Goal setting theory is pioneered by
a. Stacy Adams
b. Charms
c. Edwin Locke
d. F W Taylor
The group formed by an organization to accomplish narrow range of purposes within a specified
time
a. Formal Group
b. Task Group
c. Interest Group
d. Functional Group
———-is the attractiveness of the members towards the group or resistance to leave it
a. Group norms
b. Group behavior
c. Group cohesiveness
d. Group structure
Believes, attitudes, traditions and expectations which are shared by group members is called
a. Group norms
b. Group communication
c. Group cohesiveness
d. Group structure
—————is the ability of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives
a. Motivation
b. Control
c. Leadership
d. Supervision
In ————–leadership, there is a complete centralization of authority in the leader
a. Democratic
b. Autocratic
c. Free rein
d. Bureaucratic
In———- in fact “No leadership at all”
a. Democratic
b. Autocratic
c. Free rein
d. Bureaucratic
Free rein leadership is also known as
a. Democratic
b. Autocratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Bureaucratic
———–leadership emphasize on rules and regulation in an organization
a. Democratic
b. Autocratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Bureaucratic
———-leader is self confident and can attract followers by his great influence
a. Charismatic
b. Autocratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Bureaucratic
under sensitivity training, the preferable T- group members is
a. to
b. to
c. to
d. to
Grid Organisation Development was developed by
a. Blake and Mounton
b. Elton Mayo
c. F W Taylor
d. Max weber
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———— refers to the basic changes in the content and responsibilities of job so as to satisfy
higher motivational needs
a. Job enrichment
b. Job enlargement
c. Work relocation
d. Process consultation
————is a set of values that states what an organisation stands for
a. Organization behavior
b. Organizational culture
c. Organizational spirit
d. Organizational effectiveness
An extent to which an organisation achieves its predetermined objectives within given resources
and without undue strain to its members
a. Organization behavior
b. Organizational culture
c. Organizational spirit
d. Organizational effectiveness
Which one of the following is/are leadership theories?
a. Trait theory
b. Behavior theory
c. Contingency theory
d. All of these
Least Preferred Co-worker ( LPC) model of leadership was developed by
a. Martin Evans
b. Robert House
c. Fred Fielder
d. Whetton
Path-goal model of Leadership was introduced by
a. Martin Evans & Robert House
b. Fred Fielder
c. Whetton
d. Cameron
Which of the following is not a contingency theory of leadership
a. LPC theory
b. Path Goal theory
c. Vroom-Yetton-Jago theory
d. Job centered Leadership
——–is an attempt through a formal program to integrate employees’ needs and wellbeing with
the intention of improved productivity, better involvement and satisfaction
a. Quality of Work life
b. Quality Circle
c. Alternative Work schedule
d. Job Redesign
————- is small groups of workers who meet regularly with their supervisor to solve work
related problem
a. Quality of Work life
b. Quality Circle
c. Alternative Work schedule
d. Job Redesign
The concept of Work- Week is related with
a. Quality of Work life
b. Quality Circle
c. Alternative Work schedule
d. Job Redesign
When a group gives some of its leadership positions to the members of other group, it is
a. Contracting
b. Co-opting
c. Co-alition
d. Competition
————–refers to the combination of two or more individuals, groups or organisation for a
common goal with a minimum common programme
a. Contracting
b. Co-opting
c. Co-alition
d. Competition

 

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Human Resources Diagram – Human Resource Management (HRM) | Management Notes

20 thoughts on “Organizational Behavior – Definition and Importance of OB | Management Notes”

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  2. I’m a student of the Institute of Human Resources Management Practitioners , Ghana.
    I find this page very useful.

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  3. an OB is the study and application of knowledge about how people ,individuals and groups act in organisations and it also interprets people-organisation ,relationships interms of the whole person ,the whole group,the whole organisation and the whole social systems.

    Reply

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