Management Notes

# Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

# Inductive Reasoning Quiz – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) | Research Methods

## Inductive Reasoning

An inductive reasoning process involves inferring a general conclusion from observations made within the context of a specific situation. Inductive reasoning is sometimes referred to as “bottom-up” logic because it involves broadening specific premises into broader generalizations. We use inductive reasoning every day to understand the world around us. The scientific method is also based on inductive reasoning: scientists gather data through observation and experiment, develop hypotheses based on the data, and then test those hypotheses. Inductive inference is that middle step-making hypotheses-and they would not have gotten very far without it. Furthermore, inductive arguments are the most common type of reasoning in academic life, despite the risk of weak conclusions.

## Types of Inductive Reasoning

• Generalized: This approach uses premises about a sample set in order to draw conclusions about the whole population. An inductive generalization proceeds from a premise about a sample to a conclusion about the population. Results from this sample are extrapolated to the larger population. A statistical generalization is a type of inductive argument based on a statistically-representative sample of a population. Anaecdotal generalizations are inductive arguments in which a conclusion about a population is made based on a non-statistical sample.
• Statistical: Its quantifiable nature makes the conclusions stronger, and it relies on statistics based on a large and random sample set. Therefore, 95% of the swans in the world are white, as I have seen them on my global travels.
• Bayesian: Adapting statistical reasoning to take into account new or additional data is what this method entails. An estimate of the percentage of white swans might, for instance, be more precise with location data.
• Analogical: The form notes that if two groups have some common properties, they may also have some additional properties in common. A swan looks like a goose, and a goose lays eggs. Therefore, swans lay eggs as well.
• Predictive: Analyzing the past to predict the future is a type of reasoning that draws conclusions about the future. For example: “There have always been swans on the lake in past summers, therefore there will be swans this summer.”
• Causal inference: There is a causal link between the premise and the conclusion in this type of reasoning. The start of summer always brings swans to the lake. Therefore, swans will be on the lake when summer begins.”

## Which of the following is an example of inductive reasoning

A) February is a snowy month where I live, so it will probably snow a lot in February.
B) The meteorologist predicts snow for New Year’s Eve, so it will snow New Year’s Eve.
C) It snowed on New Year’s Eve, so it will snow every New Year’s Eve.
D) It has snowed every day this week, so it will likely snow tomorrow.

The Correct Answer for the given question is Option D) It has snowed every day this week, so it will likely snow tomorrow.

## Which of the following statements is true of inductive reasoning?

A)It involves drawing conclusions based on facts.
B) It refers to reasoning from a general principle that individuals know to be true to a specific instance.
C) It is illustrated when psychologists and other scientists use theories to make predictions and then evaluate their predictions by making further observations.
D) It involves bottom-up processing.

The Correct Answer for the given question is Option D) It involves bottom-up processing.

## Why is deductive reasoning stronger than inductive

A) Because it makes assumptions based on supported ideas
B) Because it goes from something small to something large
C) Because it builds on specific instances to come to a conclusion
D) Because it uses emotional language to make a point

The Correct Answer for the given question is Option A) Because it makes assumptions based on supported ideas

Employee Behavior Quiz – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) | Organizational Behaviour