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Types of Communication – Oral, Written and NonVerbal | Organizational Communication

Types of Communication 

On the basis of methods used, for the purpose, communication may be oral, written, and nonverbal. The choice of a particular method for a particular purpose depends upon the audience, the nature of the message (its urgency/secrecy), and the costs involved.

Oral Communication

It is also called verbal communication done with the help of spoken words. It is the most popular method. Oral communication may take place: by face-to-face conversation, and through mechanical devices. Sometimes face to face communication is desirable because of the confidential nature of message and satisfying feelings, sentiments, and sense of belongingness. This method of communication has the following types of merits and demerits.

Advantages of Oral Communication

  • Least expensive, least time consuming and is more direct and simple.
  • It offers a cooperative and friendly spirit.
  • It helps in avoiding delays, red tape, and other formalities.
  • It allows feedback and spontaneous thinking so there is more clarity and a two-way response.
  • The spoken words can be more easily understood than written words.

Disadvantages of Oral Communication

  • No formal record, so it lacks proof and may generate conflict.
  • Lengthy and distance communication cannot be conveyed verbally.
  • Physical and personal barriers communication may remain incomplete.

Written Communication

It is another most widely used method of communication. It is the most comprehensive type. It is generally done in the form of instructions, memos, letters, formal reports, rules and regulations, policy handbooks, information bulletins, circulars, and so on. It is used to give, receive, and record information. It ensures everyone has the same information.

Advantages of written communication

  • Formal, authoritative and serves as evidence of events and activities
  • It is permanent in nature so it can be used for future reference.
  • Most useful for the comprehensive nature of the information. It can save time and
  • It reduces the chances of misinterpretation, misrepresentation, and distortion of information.

Disadvantages of written communication

  • It is time-consuming and expensive.
  • There is no certainty whether the receiver has understood or not.
  • It may give rise to excessive formality and rigidity in organizational operations.
  • There is a lack of immediate feedback.

Nonverbal Communication

This method of communication includes all the elements associated with human communication except oral and written communication. Nonverbal expressions include facial expression and physical movements. Physical movement or body language is known as “kinesis”.

Our facial expression can show frustration, fear, shyness, anger, and other characteristics which can be better communication than voice or words. For example a handshake smile, eye contacts are probably the most common form of body language.

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Barriers to Communication

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