Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Off the Job Training Methods – Lecture, Case Study, Role Play & Audio Visual Methods | Human Resource Management (HRM)

Off-the-Job Training Methods

➦ The term “off-the-job training” describes training that occurs outside of the workplace.

➦ Off-the-job training aims to provide employees with new skills, knowledge, and techniques that can help them be more effective at their jobs.

➦ Several types of off-the-job training are available, including:

Off-the-Job Training Methods

1. Lecture


➦ The lecture is an off-the-job training method in which a trainer presents a presentation or lecture to a group of employees.

➦ In addition to slides and handouts, the trainer can use various visual aids to explain what is being discussed.

➦ It is possible to discuss a variety of topics, such as new skills, industry trends, company policies, or company procedures, during the lecture.

Merits of Lecture

Some of the merits of the lecture are as follows:

i. Cost-Effective: It is generally less expensive to attend lectures than to participate in simulations or role-playing exercises.

ii. Efficient use of time: The lectures provide a large amount of information in a relatively short amount of time, which makes them an efficient use of employees’ time.

iii. Scalable: Lectures are scalable for organizations with large workforces, since they are easy to deliver to large audiences.

iv. Access to expert trainers: Training sessions can bring in expert trainers and consultants, providing employees with insights into the latest industry practices.

v. Effective for knowledge-based learning: Lectures are effective for knowledge-based learning, especially when employees need to understand new concepts.

Demerits of Lecture

Some of the demerits of the lecture are as follows:

i. Lack of practical experience: Lectures may lack the hands-on training and practical experience employees may need to apply new skills.

ii. Limited Interaction: There is a limited opportunity for feedback or questions during lectures because lectures are generally one-way communication, which limits the interaction between the trainer and employees.

iii. Limited Customization: The lecture may not be customized to meet the specific needs of the organization or individual employees.

iv. Limited Retention: Employees may not retain everything that is presented in a lecture, especially if it is long or if there is little engagement.

v. Insufficient practical application: Lectures may limit employees’ ability to transfer their learning to the workplace by not providing them with the opportunity to practice new skills and apply new techniques.

➦ A lecture can be a useful off-the-job training method for organizations with a large workforce or those seeking to provide employees with a general understanding of a particular topic.

➦ Its effectiveness may be limited by the lack of interaction, customization, and practical experience, which may make it ineffective for all training needs.

➦ Lecture-based training needs to be carefully planned, delivered, and reinforced with other training methods in order to be successful.

2. Case Study

Case Study

➦ A case study is a type of off-the-job training in which employees analyze and solve a real or hypothetical situation.

➦ Whether the case study is presented in written or video format, discussion questions or group exercises may be included to encourage learning and participation.

Merits of Case Study

Some of the merits of the case study are as follows:

i. Active Learning: The case study method involves employees actively engaging with the material, analyzing the issue, and applying critical thinking skills.

ii. Real-world Relevance: The learning from case studies is often grounded in real-life situations and challenges that employees face in their work, therefore it is more relevant and practical.

iii. Collaboration: Employees can work together to solve a problem presented in a case study through collaboration and teamwork.

iv. Deeper Understanding: An employee can gain a deeper understanding of a topic or issue by analyzing and applying their knowledge to a case study.

v. Customizable: The case studies can be customized to meet the specific needs of the organization or individuals, allowing for greater relevance and application.

Demerits of Case Study

Some of the demerits of case study are as follows:

i. Time-consuming: A case study can be time-consuming, especially if it requires extensive analysis and discussion.

ii. Limited Feedback: There is a limited amount of feedback available to employees, which may restrict their ability to improve and learn from their analysis and solutions.

iii. Limited Transferability: The transferability of case studies may not be as easy as it could be, which may limit their long-term effectiveness.

iv. Lack of Practical Experience: The lack of practical experience in case studies may prevent employees from applying new skills and techniques to their jobs.

v. Potential for bias: An employee may find it difficult to consider alternative solutions if the case study is biased towards a particular perspective or solution.

➦ It is possible to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills among employees through case study-based training as an off-the-job training method.

➦ In spite of this, its effectiveness may be limited due to bias, lack of practical experience, and limitations in its transferability.

➦ Organizations should carefully select and design case studies, provide opportunities for feedback and discussion, and reinforce the learning with other training methods to ensure case study-based training is successful.

3. Role Play

Role play

➦ A role-playing exercise is a kind of off-the-job training that involves employees playing a variety of roles and acting out scenarios they may encounter at work.

➦ The exercise usually involves assigning roles or scenarios to participants, and they may have to improvise or react to unexpected events.

Merits of Role Play

Some of the merits of Role Play are as follows:

i. Active Learning: Role-playing requires active engagement with the content, application of knowledge to real-world scenarios, and flexibility in response to unexpected circumstances.

ii. Creating realistic scenarios: Role-play exercises can be designed to mimic real-world scenarios employees may encounter at work, making the learning more relevant.

iii. Providing immediate feedback: Participants gain valuable insight into their performance from trainers or peers, allowing them to quickly learn from their mistakes.

iv. Participant confidence: Role-playing exercises can help participants build confidence and comfort with handling challenging and unfamiliar situations at work.

v. Learning environment of safety: Participants who learn in a safe environment don’t have to worry about negative consequences.

Demerits of Role Play

Some of the demerits of Role Play are as follows:

i. Time-Consuming: Role-play exercises require significant resources and can be time-consuming to prepare and facilitate.

ii. Limited Transferability: In role-play exercises, scenarios may be specific to a certain context or situation, and may not easily be transferred to other situations.

iii. Participant resistance: Some participants may be uncomfortable with the idea of role-playing.

iv. A lack of realism: Role-play exercises may not accurately capture the complexities and nuances of real-life scenarios, limiting the effectiveness of the learning process.

v. Potential for bias: Participants may be limited in their ability to consider alternative solutions if the role-play scenarios are biased towards a particular solution or perspective.

➦ In general, role-play training can be an effective method of developing communication skills, problem-solving skills, and decision-making skills among employees off the job.

➦ Although it may be effective, it may also be limited by bias, a lack of realism, and limited transferability.

➦ It is essential that organizations carefully choose and design role-play scenarios, provide opportunities for feedback and reflection, and follow up with other training methods to reinforce the learning from role-play training.

4. Audio-Visual Methods

Audio Visual Method

➦ Off-the-job training using audio-visual methods is a type of training that utilizes a variety of multimedia tools, including videos, webinars, podcasts, and online tutorials, to deliver training content to employees.

➦ As a result of their accessibility, convenience, and flexibility, these methods are becoming increasingly popular.

Merits of Audio-Visual Methods

Some of the merits of Audio Visual Methods are as follows:

i. Flexibility: Audio-visual methods allow employees to access training content at their own pace and at a time that works for them, which can increase engagement.

ii. Cost Effective: It is cost-effective to deliver training content via audio-visual methods since they eliminate the need for travel, venues, and facilitators.

iii. Consistency: It is possible to ensure consistency in the delivery of training content through audio-visual methods since all participants received the same information and were able to review it at their convenience.

iv. Visual aids: Graphs, charts, and diagrams can also be used with audio-visual methods to reinforce learning and make complex concepts easier to understand.

v. Adaptability: Audio-visual methods may accommodate employees with different learning styles since both auditory and visual learners can benefit from them.

Demerits of Audio-Visual Methods

Some of the demerits of Audio Visual Methods are as follows:

i. Interaction at a distance: Audio-visual methods do not allow trainers and participants to interact directly, which can hinder the ability to ask questions, seek clarification, and receive immediate feedback.

ii. Passive Learning: In audio-visual methods, learners are mainly passive, which may result in lower engagement and retention.

iii. Issues related to technology: Audio-visual methods may require specific technical infrastructure and equipment, and poor internet connectivity can compromise learning.

iv. Limited Scope: Some audio-visual methods are limited in their ability to address certain learning objectives, such as those that require hands-on training or interactive activities.

v. Distractions: Audio-visual methods can be distracted by interruptions or multitasking, making them difficult to learn and retain.

➦ In general, audiovisual methods can be effective in delivering specific types of training to employees off-the-job.

➦ Although they may be suitable for some types of training, they can have limitations when it comes to engagement, interaction, and retention.

➦ To ensure the effectiveness of audio-visual methods, organizations should carefully select and design the content, incorporate opportunities for interaction and feedback, and supplement with other training methods as needed.


  • Off the Job Training – Employee Training Method | Human Resource Management. (n.d.). BrainKart.
  • Kishore, K. (2021, May 7). Off-the-Job training Methods. Harappa.

Related Posts


Leave a Comment