Perceptual Errors – Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour | Management Notes

Perceptual Errors
Perception |Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour
Management Notes

Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. It is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment.People generally use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. They are also called perceptual errors or barriers to perceptual accuracy which are as follows:

1.Selective perception:
Since,we can not observe everything going on about us,we engage in selective perception.People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background experiences and attitudes.It is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs. For example, a teacher may have a favorite student because they are biased by in-group favoritism. The teacher ignores the student’s poor attainment.

2.Halo effect:
It refers to the tendency of judging the person entirely on the basis of a single trait which may be favourable or unfavourable. Here, a single trait dominates other characteristics of the individual. It helps to judge others quickly.Among other errors of perception, halo error has the most profound/deep impact and implication on an individual’s perception and behaviour. They are not always inaccurate, although, they probably are more often wrong than right.

3.Stereotyping (Generalizing/Grouping):
In order to simplify matters,we often tend to classify people and events into already known general categories or groups. We put people into a convenient category on the basis of some characteristics (usually ethnic occupational, sexual etc.) is known as stereotyping.It helps to simplify the complexity.It avoids individual differences and gives wrong judgment.
For e.g : Indians are quick tempered, Fat men are Jolly/happy,Americans are ambitious,Chinese are mysterious and Japanese are industrious etc.The above examples are not always true. They are true in general not in particular.

4.Contrast effect:
It is another perceptual error which is very common in our work place.We don’t evaluate a person in isolation.Contrast effect or error occurs when we evaluate a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same This type of error is very commonly found when managers go through employment interview, performance appraisal etc.

This is also a very common type of perceptual error. Projection refers to the tendency of the people to see their own traits in other people. It means that, when people make judgements about others, they project their own characteristics into others. As the saying goes, ‘to an honest man, every body is honest’ and vice versa.

There is a popular saying that ‘the first impression is the last impression’. We frequently form impression of others on the first sight. Even before knowing any of their personality traits, they start having impressions and perceive thereby. This sometimes leads to perceptual distortion.
Examples are:

  • First bench students disciplined and intelligent
  • Last bench students undisciplined and weak


Acharya, Bhawani Shanker (2004). “Quality Circle An Overview”.Management and Development Review,Vol 1 No. 2 and 3, Kathmandu;Society for Development & Welfare Nepal.

Acharya, Bhawani shanker (2006).“Technology Impact on cultural Values and Innovation”. Annamalai University Women’s Training Centre in ICT, Tamilnadu, India, December,19-20.(A Conference paper).

Acharya, Bhawani Shanker (2005). “Understanding Business using Cases with Multimedia” Adaikalamatha Institute of Management, India Sept.29-30, (A conference paper)

Acharya, Bhawani Shanker (2009). Organizational Behaviour, Kathmandu Asmita Books Publishers & Distributors.

Adam, Everett E. Jr. and Ebert, Ronald J. (1992). Production and Operations Management: Concepts, Models and Behauiour. New Delhi:Printice-Hall of India.

Adhikari, Dev Raj (2005), Organizational Behauiour. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers.

Agrawal, Govind Ram (2005), Organizational Relations in Nepal.Kathmandu: M.K Publishers and Distributors.

Agrawal, Govinda Rama (2004), Organizational Behaviour in Nepal .Kathmandu: M.K Publishers.

Ahuja, KK (1990), Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.

Ahuja, K K (1996). Personnel Management Noida: Kalyani Publishers.

Arnold, Hujh J. and Daniel c. Feldman (1986). Organizational Behaviour.Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

Aswathappa, K (2005). Human Resource and Personnel Management.Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Bajracharya, Subarna Lal (2008). Human Resource Management.Kathmandu: Quest Publication.

Chandan, Jit S (1997),Organizational Behavior.New Delhi:Vikas Publishing House

Chandan, Jit S (1998). Management. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Chhabra, T.N. (1995). Principles and Practices of Management. New Delhi: Dhampat Rai & Sons.

Daml, C.S. (1998). Case Method of Instruction in Management.Indian Institute of Management. Reading material. File copy

Davis,Keith (1993). Human Behaviour at Work: Organizational Behavior. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill,
Decenzo, A and Robbins, S.P.(1995) Personnel/Human Resource Management. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Diction, Gary W. and Segars. Albert (1999).Redefining the High Technology Classroom.Journal of Education for Business.January/February.152-156

Dubrin, Andrew J.(2005). Leadership. Research Findings,Practice,and Skills, New Delhi: Biztantra.

Dwivedi, RS (1997). Human Relations and Organizational Behaviour: New Delhi: McMillan.

Gilhooly, K.J, (1982). Thinking Directed, Undirected, and Creative.Academic Press.

Grandgenett. Nepal and Grandgenett. Don (1997), Techniques for Improving Computer-assisted presentation. Innovation in Education and Training International, 43.1

Gravin, D.A.(1993).Building a Learning Organization. Harvard Business Review.78-91

Griffin, RW, (2000), Management. Delhi: A.I.T.B.S. Publishers and Distributors

Hellriegel, Don, Slocum John W. and Woodman Richard W. (2001).Organizational Behaviour. Singapore:Thomson Learning.

Hindle, Tim (2010).Guide to Management Ideas and Gurus. London:Profile Books.

Hughes, Richard L. Ginnett Robert C., Curphy Gordon J. (2006).Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Ivancevich, John M., James H. Donnelly, and James T. Gibson (2003).Management: Principles and Functions.New Delhi: Richard D. Irwin.

Jain, Sagar C. Laurel F. Gooch and Emily, V. Grantham (1975) .Case writing Do’s and Don’ts. Chapel Hill University of North Carolina.

K.C., Fatta Bahadur (2001). Organizational Behaviour. Kathmandu: Navin Prakashan (in Nepali).

Kelly, Jeo (1987).Organizational Behavior.New Delhi: Surjeet Publications.

Khanka, S.S. (2004).Organizational Behaviour:Text and Cases. New Delhi: S. Chand & Company.

Kirby, Andy (1997). Games for Trainers.Mumbai Business Publications Inc.(Vol.1)

Koontz, Harold and Heinz, Weihrich (1999). Essentials of Management.Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

Krajeswki,Leo J. and Rizman, Larry P.(2002).Operations Management:Strategy & Analysis.Delhi:Pearson Education Asia.

Leenders, L.A.M., Erskine, J.A. Leeders, M.R.(1999).Learning with Cases.London: Richard Ivey school of Business, The University of Western Ontario.

Luthans, Fred (1989).Organizational Behaviour. Singapore: Tata McGraw Hill,International Edition.

Luthans, Fred (2005).Organizational Behaviour. Singapore: Tata McGraw Hill,International Edition.

Mathema, Sushi B. and Bhattarai, Manoj (2008). Organizational Behaviour(in Nepali). Kathmandu: Dhaulagiri Books and Stationery.

Mayfield, Marys (1997).Thinking for Yourself Developing for Yourself:Developing Critical Thinking skills Through Reading and Writing.

McShane, Steven L,. Glinow, Mary Annevon (2003). Organizational Behaviour. Emerging Realities for the Workplace Revolution. New Delhi:Tata McGraw-Hill.

Memoria, C.B.(1988).Personnel Management. Bombay: Himalayan Publishing House.

Mitchell, Terence R. and James R. Larson (1987).People in organizations:An Introductions to Organizational Behaviour.Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

Moorgan C.T., King, R.A, King, J.R., Weisz,J.R. and Schopler J. (2003).Introduction to Psychology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Moorhead, G. and Griffin R w. (2000). Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi: A.I.T.B.S. Publishers and Distributors.

Newstrom,John W. and Keith Davis(1989).Organizational Behaviour: Human Behaviour at Work. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Northouse, Peter G. (2007) .Leadership: Theory and Practice.New Delhi:SAGE Publications.

Pant, Prem Raj (2005). Principles of Management, Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Enterprises.

Pareek,Udai,T.V.Rao and D.M. Pestonjee(1981).Behavioural Processes in Organizations.Oxford and IBH publishing Co.

Paul, James. Total Quality Management: An Introductory Text. Prentice Hall.

Poudyal, Santosh R., Pradhan, Gopal M. and Bhandari, Kedar P. (2064),Principles of Management. Kathmandu: Asmita Publication.

Ramasamy, Subburaj (2005). Total Quality Management.New Delhi: Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company.

Rao, V.S.P. and Narayan, S.P.(1988).Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi:Konark Publishers.

Robbins, S.P.(1998). Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall.

Robbins,S.P.(2005). Organizational Behaviour. New Delhi: Prentice Hall

Robbins, S.P. and Coulter, M. (2000). Management. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Robbins, S.P. and DeCenzo D.A. (2001), Fundamentals of Management. New Delhi: Pearson Education.

Schultz, Daune P. and Schultz, Sydney Ellen (2005). Theories of Personality.New Delhi: Raul Print Pack (for Thomson Learning Wadsworth)

Shrestha, Sunity, Acharya B.S., Tamang Govinda, Adhikary Shankar,Adhikari Prakash (2006). Critical Thinking and Decision Making.Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Enterprises.

Steiner C.M.(1974).Scripts People Live. Grover Press Inc.

Stoner J.A.F.,Freeman R.E. and Gilbert D.R., Jr.(1998).Management.New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Subba, Shishir, Thapa, Bharat and Acharya, Bhawani S. (2008). Basic Psychology: Organizational Applications. Kathmandu Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors.

Tripathi P.C and Reddy P.N.(1991).Principles of Management.New Delhi:Tata McGraw Hill.

U.S Congress (1998). Office of Technology Assessment Power on:Tools for Teaching and Learning.OTA-set 379


Post Your Comment Here

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.