Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Segmented personality involvement exists in ____________ group.

Segmented personality involvement exists in ____________ group.


A. in-group
B. secondary
C. informal
D. primary

The Correct Answer Is:

  • B. secondary

Segmented Personality Involvement:

Segmented personality involvement is a sociological concept introduced by Georg Simmel. It describes a phenomenon where individuals exhibit different facets of their personality or behavior in various social groups or contexts. In other words, people often adapt their behavior, roles, and identities based on the specific social setting they are in.

This concept highlights the dynamic and context-dependent nature of human social interactions.

Why Segmented Personality Involvement is Associated with the Secondary Group:

Segmented personality involvement is particularly relevant when individuals interact with secondary groups. Secondary groups are characterized by the following key attributes:

Formal Relationships:

Secondary groups involve formal and often impersonal relationships. These relationships are typically established for specific purposes, such as achieving common goals, completing tasks, or fulfilling certain functions. Examples of secondary groups include workplaces, academic institutions, and clubs with specific objectives.


Members of secondary groups come together with clear objectives or tasks to accomplish. The interactions within these groups are often directed toward achieving these goals. As a result, individuals tend to emphasize their roles and responsibilities related to these objectives.


Interactions in secondary groups are primarily task-focused. Members are more concerned with accomplishing the tasks at hand than with building deep personal connections. This focus on tasks and responsibilities can lead to the phenomenon of segmented personality involvement.

For example, imagine a corporate workplace, which is a classic secondary group. Employees working in such an environment may adopt distinct professional personas while at work. They emphasize specific roles and behaviors associated with their job descriptions, such as being a manager, team member, or supervisor.

In this context, their professional identity takes precedence, and they may keep aspects of their personal identity separate. This compartmentalization is a manifestation of segmented personality involvement.

Why the Other Options Are Not Correct:

A. In-group:

An in-group is a social group to which an individual strongly identifies. In in-groups, individuals typically share common values, beliefs, and personal bonds. Members of in-groups often feel a strong sense of belonging and acceptance.

Consequently, they are more likely to express their authentic selves and display a consistent personality across different situations. Segmented personality involvement is less likely to occur within in-groups because authenticity and a sense of unity are prioritized.

C. Informal:

The term “informal” relates to the nature of relationships and interactions within a group. Informal groups are characterized by casual, relaxed, and spontaneous interactions among members. In such settings, individuals may feel more comfortable being themselves and expressing their entire personalities.

While they may exhibit a range of behaviors, these behaviors are typically more authentic and less compartmentalized compared to interactions in formal settings, such as secondary groups.

D. Primary:

Primary groups are characterized by close-knit, long-term relationships based on emotional connections and personal bonds. Examples of primary groups include family, close friends, and small social circles. In primary groups, individuals tend to be their authentic selves and do not typically engage in segmented personality involvement.

These groups are built on trust, emotional intimacy, and a sense of unconditional acceptance. Members interact based on personal relationships rather than formal roles or goals.

In summary, segmented personality involvement is most closely associated with the secondary group due to the formal, task-oriented, and goal-focused nature of interactions within these groups. In secondary groups, individuals often adapt their behavior to emphasize specific roles and responsibilities related to achieving common objectives.

This adaptation can lead to the compartmentalization of their personalities. In contrast, in-groups, informal groups, and primary groups involve different dynamics that promote authenticity and a broader expression of one’s identity. Recognizing and understanding segmented personality involvement sheds light on how individuals navigate diverse social contexts and adapt their behavior to suit specific group dynamics and goals.

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