Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer view emotion as resulting from
a) biochemical changes in the pituitary
b) cognitive labels of physiological changes
c) instinctual behavior
d) level of arousal
e) need for affiliation
The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Psychologists began to develop cognitive theories of emotion during the 1960s, during what has come to be known as the “cognitive revolution”. The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer as one of the earliest cognitive theories of emotion. According to Schachter and Singer, physical arousal plays a primary role in emotions, as with the James-Lange theory of emotions, and unlike the Cannon-Bard theory. Yet they believed that physical arousal could not be responsible for emotional responses alone, since it appeared to be the same with a wide variety of emotions.
According to the two-factor theory of emotion, physical arousal is associated with cognitive charges associated with that arousal. Identifying the arousal is also necessary for us to feel the emotion, rather than just feeling the arousal. The theory also states that an individual’s interpretation of his or her immediate environment influences their emotional response. People can interpret emotions based on their immediate surroundings when they experience a physiological response. When someone has an apparent emotional explanation for their bodily response, they are less likely to look for another explanation from their environment.
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