Strategic Models of OC ( Theories of Planned Change )
Organizational Change | Organizational Behaviour
BBA | BBA-BI | BBA-TT | BCIS
There are a number of strategic models available to be used for the purpose of Organizational Change.Some of the models of organizational change are as follows:
- Lewins Model:This model was developed by Kurt Lewin. It suggests that the need for change and the goals of such a change are recognized and accepted, the management must induce the change process in such a manner that such change is more or less permanent. To make the change more lasting Lewin proposed 3 phases of the change process viz., unfreezing, movement (changing), and refreezing. He suggested that managers who are trying to implement change must analyze the balance of driving and restraining forces and then strengthen the driving forces or weaken the restraining forces or use both of them.
- Lippitt, Watson and Westley’s Model: According to this model there are three factors which should be taken into account while introducing change ie; and values internal distribution of power; internal mobilization of energy, and internal communication. Regarding interaction between internal system and external environment,they suggested correspondence between external and internal reality and values for action and skills and strategy for action.
- Daltons’ Model: Daltons’ Model of Organizational Change focuses four major phases and four specific sub-processes of learning. It highlights that the learning process for managers is highly complex. The process of learning incorporates establishment of new objectives, break of prior societies, an initial threat to self-esteem, increased self-confidence etc. To implement the change process properly there should be proper distribution of power among managers.
- Black Mouton, Barnes and Grinder’s Model: According to this model, organizational change can be only materialized with the selection of proper off-the-job management training and development, team training, on-the-job training, close integration between the functional groups and establishing changes.
- Argyris’ Model: This model focus diagnosis of needs, attitudes, and feelings of the staff. The methods used for purpose of measuring above variables are interviews, the design of survey and questionnaires. The data so collected are organized and discussed at a seminar. Then the training programs are organized for concerned staff after that revaluation of needs are done. Here, attempts are made to suggest some structured innovation which were implemented.
- Welham’s Model: According to this model, there is an urgent need for understanding both of the context and process of change and their interaction, rather than the content alone. The elements of content include stakeholder perspectives, social relations between and others affected by a project, informal networks, and procedures. The process elements are power/politics perspective, and cultural perspective. An understanding of interactions between context and process is necessary because they together form different aspects of same reality.