Management Notes

# Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

# The six sigma process received its name from:

## The six sigma process received its name from:

Options:

 A. The intersection of six bell curves, where there are no errors B. Six degrees of freedom in removing an error, called “sigma” C. Six tries to change or give up D. Six standard deviations, or less than 3.4 defects per million E. Sigma, the computer company that invented it

D. Six standard deviations, or less than 3.4 defects per million

Correct Answer Explanation: D. Six standard deviations, or less than 3.4 defects per million

The correct answer is D. Six standard deviations, or less than 3.4 defects per million. The term “Six Sigma” in the context of quality management and process improvement refers to a statistical measure of process performance.

It originated from the field of statistics and probability, specifically the normal distribution or bell curve.

Six Sigma aims to achieve a level of performance where the process produces less than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. This corresponds to a process that is extremely efficient and has minimal variation.

The term “sigma” represents standard deviations from the mean in a normal distribution. Achieving Six Sigma quality means that the process is operating within six standard deviations of the mean, resulting in a highly reliable and consistent outcome.

Now, let’s examine why the other options are not correct:

A. The intersection of six bell curves, where there are no errors:

This option proposes the idea of the intersection of bell curves as the basis for the term “Six Sigma.” However, it doesn’t accurately represent the statistical concept that underlies Six Sigma.

The term “Sigma” in Six Sigma refers to standard deviation, which is a measure of the dispersion or spread of data points in a normal distribution curve.

Six Sigma specifically aims to achieve a level of quality where the process operates within six standard deviations of the mean, resulting in very low defect rates. It doesn’t involve the literal intersection of bell curves or the absence of errors at that intersection.

B. Six degrees of freedom in removing an error, called “sigma”:

This option incorrectly associates the term “sigma” with degrees of freedom, which are a statistical concept representing the number of values in a calculation that have the freedom to vary. In Six Sigma methodology,

“sigma” refers to standard deviation, not degrees of freedom. The goal of achieving Six Sigma quality is to reduce process variation within six standard deviations, ensuring a high level of consistency and quality output, rather than a specific number of degrees of freedom associated with error removal.

C. Six tries to change or give up:

This option suggests a misconception that the term “Six Sigma” relates to attempting something six times before either changing tactics or giving up.

However, Six Sigma is a systematic and disciplined approach to process improvement based on statistical analysis and data-driven decision-making.

It doesn’t involve a fixed number of attempts or a notion of giving up after a specific number of trials. Instead, it focuses on reducing variability and defects in a process to achieve higher quality and efficiency.

E. Sigma, the computer company that invented it:

This option presents incorrect information regarding the origin of Six Sigma. The term “Six Sigma” did not originate from a computer company named Sigma.

Rather, it emerged from statistical concepts and methodologies developed to improve process efficiency and quality in manufacturing and other industries. Companies like Motorola and General Electric played significant roles in popularizing and implementing Six Sigma as a methodology for quality improvement.

In essence, each of these options misinterprets or inaccurately represents the statistical foundation and purpose of Six Sigma, which is centered on reducing variation and defects within a process to achieve higher quality and efficiency.

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