Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Communication Process – Communication | Organizational Behaviour

Communication Process

Communication Process

Communication Process

➦ Communication is a process, which means that communication exists as a flow through a sequence (series of steps). A simple model of communication consists of seven parts. Each part of the communication process is described below:

1. Source:


➦ It is the individual, group, or organization interested in communicating something to another party. The source is the originator of the message within the communication process.

➦ In an organizational context, the source could be a manager, team leader, or any individual tasked with conveying information or instructions.

➦ The effectiveness of communication heavily depends on the credibility and clarity of the source. A credible source is more likely to be trusted and respected by the receivers, enhancing the reception of the message.

➦ Moreover, the source must possess adequate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter to ensure accurate transmission.

2. Encoding:


➦ It is the process by which the message is translated from an idea or thought into transmittable symbols (e.g., sound, word, number, picture, gesture, etc.)

➦ Encoding involves converting thoughts, ideas, or information into a form that can be transmitted through a chosen communication channel. This process requires the source to translate the message into words, symbols, or non-verbal cues that the receiver can comprehend.

➦ Effective encoding entails selecting the appropriate language, tone, and medium to convey the intended meaning clearly.

➦ Factors such as cultural differences, language barriers, and individual preferences may influence the encoding process, emphasizing the need for careful consideration by the source.

3. Transmission:


➦ It is the process through which the symbols that represent the message are sent to the receiver. The medium is the channel or path of transmission (e.g. interpersonal talking, touching, (ii) mass media newspapers, magazines, television, etc.

➦ Transmission refers to the physical or electronic transfer of the encoded message from the source to the receiver through a chosen communication channel.

➦ In an organizational setting, communication channels can vary widely, including face-to-face interactions, written memos, emails, phone calls, video conferences, and social media platforms.

➦ The selection of the transmission channel depends on factors such as the urgency of the message, the complexity of the information, and the preferences of both the source and the receiver.

➦ Effective transmission requires ensuring the reliability, clarity, and accessibility of the chosen communication channel.

4. Decoding:


➦ It is the process by which the receiver of the message interprets the message’s meaning. Decoding is the process by which the receiver interprets and makes sense of the transmitted message.

➦ It involves deciphering the encoded symbols, words, or non-verbal cues to extract the intended meaning. Successful decoding hinges on the receiver’s ability to understand the language, context, and nuances of the message.

➦ However, decoding can be influenced by various factors, including the receiver’s knowledge, experience, cultural background, and perceptual filters.

➦ Misinterpretation or misunderstanding may occur if the decoding process is hindered by barriers such as language differences, technical jargon, or ambiguous communication.

5. Receiver:


➦ The receiver is the individual, group, or organization that perceives the encoded symbols and may or may not decode them and try to understand the intended message.

➦ The receiver is the intended recipient of the message within the communication process. In an organizational context, receivers can be individuals, teams, or departments who need to receive and act upon the communicated information.

➦ The effectiveness of communication depends not only on the clarity of the message but also on the receiver’s receptiveness, attention, and understanding.

➦ Receivers must actively engage in the decoding process to extract the intended meaning and respond appropriately. Additionally, receivers may provide feedback to the source, thereby completing the communication loop.

6. Feedback:


➦ It is the process in which the receiver returns a message to the sender that indicates receipt of the message.

➦ Feedback is the response or reaction provided by the receiver to the source following the reception and interpretation of the message. It serves as a crucial component of the communication process, enabling the source to assess the effectiveness of their message and make necessary adjustments.

➦ Feedback can take various forms, including verbal acknowledgment, written responses, body language, or actions taken in response to the communicated information.

➦ Constructive feedback facilitates mutual understanding, promotes clarity, and fosters continuous improvement in communication within the organization.

7. Noise:


➦ It is any disturbance in the process of communication that interferes with or distorts communication.

➦ Noise refers to any interference or distortion that disrupts the clarity or accuracy of the communicated message during the transmission process.

➦ Noise can manifest in different forms, including physical, semantic, psychological, or cultural barriers that impede effective communication. Examples of noise in an organizational context may include background noise during a phone call, language barriers, perceptual differences, conflicting priorities, or technological glitches.

➦ Minimizing noise is essential to ensure the smooth flow of communication and prevent misinterpretation or misunderstanding among the parties involved.

➦ In summary, the communication process in organizational behavior involves several interconnected components, including the source, encoding, transmission, decoding, receiver, feedback, and noise.

➦ Each element plays a critical role in facilitating the exchange of information, ideas, and directives within the organization.

➦ By understanding and effectively managing these components, organizations can enhance communication effectiveness, promote collaboration, and achieve their goals more efficiently.

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