Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Which of the following is a process perspective on motivation?

Which of the following is a process perspective on motivation?

  1. Goal-setting theory
  2. Job characteristics model
  3. Two-factor theory
  4. ERG theory
  5. Acquired needs theory

 The Correct Answer Is

a. Goal-setting theory

The correct answer is indeed “a. Goal-setting theory.” Let’s delve into the details of why this perspective is considered a process perspective on motivation.

Correct Answer Explanation: a. Goal-Setting Theory:

Goal-setting theory is a process perspective on motivation because it focuses on how specific and challenging goals lead to higher performance. According to this theory, setting clear and challenging goals can motivate individuals to exert effort, enhance their performance, and persist in the face of obstacles.

The process involves individuals setting goals, receiving feedback, and adjusting their efforts to achieve those goals. Edwin Locke and Gary Latham developed this theory, highlighting the importance of setting specific and difficult goals to enhance motivation.

Goal-setting theory is distinct as it emphasizes the mechanisms through which setting clear objectives fosters motivation. It underscores the significance of feedback loops, wherein individuals receive information about their progress toward goals.

This feedback loop enables individuals to adjust their strategies, allocate resources effectively, and maintain their commitment to achieving the set objectives.

Consequently, this continuous process of setting, pursuing, and reassessing goals propels individuals to strive for higher performance levels, making goal-setting theory a quintessential process perspective in understanding motivation.

Now, let’s explore why the other options are not correct:

b. Job Characteristics Model:

The Job Characteristics Model, developed by Hackman and Oldham, is primarily a content theory. It identifies key job characteristics that contribute to intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. While it offers valuable insights into how certain job attributes can impact motivation, it doesn’t elucidate the process by which motivation occurs.

The focus is on the identification of specific job characteristics that influence an individual’s experience and satisfaction at work, rather than the dynamic nature of motivation as a process.

c. Two-Factor Theory:

Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory is categorized as a content theory because it distinguishes between factors that lead to job satisfaction (motivator factors) and those that prevent dissatisfaction (hygiene factors).

It doesn’t provide a process-oriented view of how individuals become motivated. The theory posits that certain factors influence satisfaction and others dissatisfaction, but it doesn’t elaborate on the ongoing processes that drive individuals to be motivated or demotivated in their own work.

d. ERG Theory:

Alderfer’s ERG Theory, which categorizes human needs into existence, relatedness, and growth, is another content theory. It doesn’t focus on the process of motivation but rather on the categorization and interaction of needs.

The theory proposes that individuals may move between these needs based on their experiences, but it doesn’t provide a detailed account of the steps involved in the motivational process.

e. Acquired Needs Theory:

McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory identifies three needs achievement, affiliation, and power—that drive individuals. However, like the other content theories, it doesn’t delve into the process of motivation.

While it highlights the different needs that individuals may possess and how these needs can influence behavior, it doesn’t offer a step-by-step understanding of the motivational process itself.

In essence, the distinction lies in whether a theory focuses on identifying factors that influence motivation (content theory) or on understanding the ongoing process of how individuals become motivated and sustain that motivation over time (process theory).

Goal-setting theory, in contrast, falls into the latter category by emphasizing the dynamic nature of setting, pursuing, and adjusting goals as a central process in motivation.

Related Posts


Leave a Comment