Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Which of the following is not an element of the communication process?

Which of the following is not an element of the communication process?

A) Decoding
B) Communication
C) Channel
D) Receiver

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The Correct Answer for the given question is option B) Communication


Communication Process

Communication is a process, which means that communication exists as a flow through a sequence (series of steps). A simple model of communication consists of seven parts. We use communication to exert influence on others, change our and others’ attitudes, motivate the people around us and maintain relationships. Communication constitutes a significant part of our active lives and is a social activity. Through reading, writing, and speaking, or through body language, this social activity can be pursued verbally or non-verbally.

Elements/Components of Communication Process

Components of Communication Process

The main components of the communication process are as follows:


The context of every message is equally important, regardless of its type. The context in which communication takes place affects the outcome. It could be physical, social, chronological, or cultural in nature. Communications take place within context. A message is selected for communication within context. The concept of context is very broad and consists of many aspects. Countries, cultures, and organizations are a few of these aspects. Information is communicated differently in every country, culture, or organization.

External stimulus

Meetings, letters, memos, phone calls, faxes, notes, email, and even casual conversations are sources of external stimuli. An external stimulus motivates you to respond, and your response may be oral or written.

Internal stimuli

You should include your opinion, attitude, likes, dislikes, emotions, education, and experience. All these aspects of context have a profound influence on how you convey your ideas. Considering all these aspects of context is the best way to communicate ideas effectively.


Senders (or encoders) are those who send the message. An effective message is conveyed by a combination of symbols, words, graphs, and pictures that the receiver can understand in order to achieve the desired result. Views, backgrounds, approaches, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a significant impact on the message. Ascertaining that the recipient understands the message in the same terms as the sender relies on the verbal and nonverbal symbols used to convey the message.


Messages are the information exchanged between sender and recipient. To begin, you must determine:

  • What you want to convey
  • Please describe the content of your message
  • What is the main point of your message?
  • Additional information to include.

It must be clear what the message is all about. It is important to keep all aspects of the context and the receiver in mind when writing a message. Senders should make sure that the message outlines its main objective clearly. Messages sent by the sender can be intentional or unintentional.


Communication between the sender and receiver is carried out through this channel. In order to ensure that the message is effectively communicated and correctly interpreted by the recipient, the medium of communication must be chosen carefully. It is thus important that the sender pick the right medium for distributing the message. The message might not reach the intended recipients otherwise.
Depending on the features of communication, the choice of communication medium may differ:

  • Depending on the type and nature of your message.
  • Relationships between the sender and receiver affect this process as well.

A message delivered orally is effective when it is urgent, personal, or if immediate feedback is required. For technical messages that require documentation, written media is preferred.


Message recipients (or decoders) are the people to whom the message is addressed. A decoder’s ability to comprehend a message is impacted by a variety of factors, such as:

  • The encoder is dependent on the decoder
  • Knowledge of the recipient
  • Response of the recipient to the message


It is the process in which the receiver returns a message to the sender that indicates receipt of the message.In the communication process, feedback is essential, since it allows the sender to gauge the message’s effectiveness. This allows the sender to verify that the decoder has interpreted the message correctly. Communication ends with feedback. The feedback can be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (through smiles, sighs, etc.). Written feedback may also be provided in the form of memos, reports, feedback forms, etc.


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