**Which of the following is not the internal sort?**

** ****Options:**

A. insertion sort B. bubble sort C. merge sort D. heap sort |

### The Correct Answer Is:

- C. merge sort

The term “internal sort” refers to sorting algorithms that operate entirely within the computer’s main memory (RAM) and do not require additional storage or external resources. These algorithms are often preferred when sorting small to moderately sized datasets because they are efficient in terms of memory usage.

Let’s examine why “C. merge sort” is the correct answer and why the other options are not considered internal sorts:

**C. Merge Sort (Correct Answer):**

Merge sort is not an internal sort algorithm. It is an example of an external sort algorithm. Merge sort divides the input dataset into smaller sublists, sorts them individually, and then merges these sorted sublists back together to produce the final sorted result.

The merging process often involves reading and writing data to and from external storage, such as a hard drive, which makes it an external sort.

While merge sort is highly efficient and stable for sorting large datasets that do not fit entirely in memory, it is not classified as an internal sort because it may require additional storage resources beyond the computer’s main memory.

**A. Insertion Sort (Incorrect):**

Insertion sort is indeed an internal sort algorithm. It is a simple, in-place sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array one element at a time. It works well for small datasets and has a space complexity of O(1), making it suitable for sorting data entirely in memory. Insertion sort is not dependent on external storage, so it is classified as an internal sort.

**B. Bubble Sort (Incorrect):**

Bubble sort is also an internal sort algorithm. It is a straightforward sorting method that repeatedly steps through the list, compares adjacent elements, and swaps them if they are in the wrong order.

Like insertion sort, bubble sort operates in-place and does not require additional memory resources. It is suitable for sorting data within the computer’s main memory and is classified as an internal sort.

**D. Heap Sort (Incorrect):**

Heap sort is an internal sort algorithm. It is based on the data structure known as a binary heap, which is a complete binary tree that can be stored efficiently in an array. Heap sort builds a max-heap (or min-heap, depending on the desired sorting order) from the input data and repeatedly extracts the maximum (or minimum) element while maintaining the heap property.

The extracted elements are then placed in the sorted order. Heap sort is an in-place algorithm, and its space complexity is O(1), making it suitable for sorting data entirely within the computer’s main memory.

In summary, “merge sort” is not an internal sort algorithm because it may require external storage resources for the merging step. On the other hand, “insertion sort,” “bubble sort,” and “heap sort” are all examples of internal sorts.

They operate entirely within the computer’s main memory, making them suitable for sorting small to moderately sized datasets without the need for additional storage. Therefore, option C, “merge sort,” is the correct answer when considering whether the sorting algorithm is internal or external.

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