**Which one of the following accurately describes the three parts of the dupont identity? **

** ****Options:**

A. Operating efficiency, equity multiplier, and profitability ratio.

B. Financial leverage, operating efficiency, and profitability ratio.

C. Equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover.

D. Debt-equity ratio, capital intensity ratio, and profit margin.

E. Return on assets, profit margin, and equity multiplier.

### The Correct Answer Is:

C. Equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover.

**Correct Answer Explanation: C. Equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover.**

The DuPont identity, also known as the DuPont analysis, is a fundamental tool used in financial analysis to break down the return on equity (ROE) into its three key components: equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover.

C. Equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover is the correct answer because it accurately represents the three components of the DuPont identity.

**i. Equity Multiplier**:

This ratio measures the financial leverage employed by a company, indicating how much debt a company uses to finance its assets relative to shareholders’ equity. It is calculated as total assets divided by shareholders’ equity. A higher equity multiplier suggests a higher level of financial risk due to increased reliance on debt financing.

**ii. Profit Margin**:

This ratio shows the company’s profitability by measuring how much profit a company generates for every dollar of sales. It’s calculated by dividing net income by total revenue. A higher profit margin indicates that the company is more efficient in managing its expenses relative to its revenue.

**iii. Total Asset Turnover**:

This ratio measures a company’s efficiency in using its assets to generate sales. It’s calculated by dividing total revenue by average total assets. A higher total asset turnover signifies that the company is generating more revenue per dollar of assets employed.

**Now, let’s dissect why the other options are incorrect:**

**A. Operating efficiency, equity multiplier, and profitability ratio.**

While this option correctly includes the equity multiplier and the profitability ratio, “operating efficiency” is not a direct component of the DuPont identity. The DuPont identity specifically breaks down the return on equity (ROE) into three components: equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover.

Operating efficiency is a broad concept that may involve various efficiency measures but is not a standard part of the DuPont analysis.

**B. Financial leverage, operating efficiency, and profitability ratio.**

This option, like option A, includes “operating efficiency,” which is not a component of the DuPont identity. The term “financial leverage” is typically associated with the equity multiplier, which measures the financial leverage employed by a company.

The profitability ratio is relevant, but the correct breakdown in the DuPont analysis is profit margin rather than a more generic profitability ratio.

**D. Debt-equity ratio, capital intensity ratio, and profit margin.**

This option combines different financial ratios, none of which precisely match the three components of the DuPont identity. The debt-equity ratio is related to financial leverage but is not the same as the equity multiplier.

The capital intensity ratio is not a direct component of the DuPont analysis. The correct breakdown for DuPont is profit margin, equity multiplier, and total asset turnover.

**E. Return on assets, profit margin, and equity multiplier.**

While this option includes profit margin and equity multiplier, “return on assets” is not a part of the original three components of the DuPont identity. Return on assets is a distinct ratio that measures the efficiency of utilizing assets to generate profits but is not one of the standard components of DuPont.

The correct breakdown for DuPont is profit margin, equity multiplier, and total asset turnover.

In summary, the DuPont identity is a specific financial analysis tool that breaks down return on equity into three components: equity multiplier, profit margin, and total asset turnover. None of the other options accurately capture this breakdown, either including extraneous elements or missing key components of the DuPont analysis.

The precise terminology and definitions matter in financial analysis, and understanding the correct components is crucial for an accurate assessment of a company’s financial performance.

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