Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Which one of the following theory has the attribute of moderate risk taking as a function of skill, not chance?

Which one of the following theory has the attribute of moderate risk taking as a function of skill, not chance?


A. Need for independence
B. Need for achievement
C. Need for affiliation
D. Need for authority

The Correct Answer Is:

B. Need for achievement

The correct answer is B. Need for achievement.

The Need for Achievement theory, proposed by David McClelland, suggests that individuals are motivated by a desire for accomplishment and the attainment of high standards of performance.

This theory emphasizes the importance of personal accomplishment, and it posits that individuals with a high need for achievement are more likely to engage in activities where they can take moderate risks, provided they believe that success is a result of their efforts and abilities rather than luck or chance.

Individuals with a high need for achievement tend to be driven by the pursuit of challenging goals, and they prefer tasks that offer a moderate level of risk, as they believe that their skills and efforts can make a difference in the outcome.

They take personal responsibility for their successes and failures, attributing them to their own actions rather than external factors.

Now, let’s explore why the other options are not correct:

A. Need for Independence:

The Need for Independence theory is centered around an individual’s desire for autonomy, self-reliance, and the ability to make decisions and take actions independently.

It emphasizes a preference for freedom from external control or influence. This theory is not directly related to the attribute of moderate risk-taking based on skill versus chance.

Individuals who have a high need for independence may value making decisions on their own, but this does not necessarily translate into a propensity for taking calculated risks based on their perceived skills.

Independence is more about self-governance and personal control, whereas risk-taking based on skill implies a willingness to tackle challenges that require a certain level of expertise or proficiency.

C. Need for Affiliation:

The Need for Affiliation theory focuses on an individual’s desire for social interaction, companionship, and a sense of belonging. It emphasizes the need to establish and maintain harmonious relationships with others. This theory is primarily concerned with the social and interpersonal aspects of motivation.

While individuals with a high need for affiliation seek meaningful connections with others, it doesn’t directly address the inclination towards risk-taking behavior based on skill.

Their motivation is driven by the desire for social connections and maintaining positive relationships, which may not necessarily involve taking calculated risks in the pursuit of personal achievement.

D. Need for Authority:

The Need for Authority theory pertains to an individual’s desire to control, influence, or lead others. It is often associated with a preference for assuming positions of leadership and power within a social or organizational context. This theory is more about the aspiration to exert authority and influence over others.

While individuals with a high need for authority may thrive in leadership roles, it does not directly address the specific attribute of moderate risk-taking as a function of skill.

The focus here is on the desire for control and leadership, which may involve decision-making but not necessarily in the context of taking calculated risks based on one’s perceived abilities.

In summary, while each of these theories addresses important aspects of human motivation and behavior, they do not directly align with the attribute of moderate risk-taking as a function of skill versus chance.

The Need for Achievement theory stands out in this context as it specifically emphasizes the pursuit of challenging goals and a willingness to take calculated risks, provided success is attributed to personal effort and ability.

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