Management Notes

Reference Notes for Management

Expectancy Theory of Motivation – Vroom’s Expectancy Theory | Theories of Motivation

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Expectancy Theory 

Expectation Theory


➦ In the present situation, expectancy theory is a widely accepted motivation theory because it focuses on the outcome.

➦ The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform is dependent on the intensity of expectation that performance will be followed by the definite outcome of an individual.

➦ It means that the expectancy theory of motivation focuses on the willingness of an individual to act in a certain way depends on the fulfillment of his expectation followed by the outcome.

➦ People are motivated when they know how to earn rewards, expect they will be able to earn rewards, and expect they will be worthwhile rewards.

➦ The expectation theory states that incentives will be high when people know what is required of them to earn rewards. In 1964, Vroom (1964) formulated the valency-instrumentality-expectancy (VIE) theory.

➦ The term value stands for value, instrumentality means a belief that if we do one thing it will lead to another, and expectancy means the probability of success.

➦ While expectations may be reinforced by past experiences (reinforcement), individuals are often faced with new situations – a change in job, payment system, or working conditions imposed by management – where past experiences are inadequate indicators of implications.

➦ Motivation is diminished under these circumstances.

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