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E-Mail and Memorandums-Explained in Detail| Business Communication

E-Mail and Memorandums

Memorandums (often abbreviated as memos) and emails are two common forms of writing in professional and personal settings. Each serves a specific purpose and has its own conventions and formats.


Email is a digital method of communication widely used for sending messages, documents, and other types of information over the internet, short for electronic mail.

In addition to being a versatile tool, e-mail can also be used for business correspondence, personal communication, etc.

Format of Email

There are several key components of a memorandum, each serving a distinct purpose. Here is a breakdown of these components:

Format of Email

a. Recipients

The “To” field specifies the primary recipient(s) of the email. You can enter one or more addresses here.

There are two optional fields: CC (carbon copy) and BCC (blind carbon copy), which allow you to send a copy of the email to additional recipients. CC recipients will be visible to all other recipients, while BCC recipients will not be.

b. Subject line

It summarize the email’s content in a brief and concise manner. Subject lines should accurately reflect the email’s main topic or purpose to ensure recipients understand its significance.

Avoid using overly technical terms or jargon in the subject line, since this can make it difficult for the recipient to comprehend the email’s purpose. Finally, make sure the subject line is relevant to the recipient and the content they are receiving.

c. Salutations

Salutations are greetings at the beginning of an email. They vary in formality depending on the relationship between the sender and the recipient.

A common salutation is “Dear [Name], “Hello [Name],” or “Hi [Name],” and you can also add a more formal greeting such as “Greetings,” “Respectfully,” or “Respectfully yours.”

d. Body

You should format the body of the email according to the following guidelines:

  • Break up long blocks of text with paragraphs so they are easier to read.
  • Your writing should be clear and concise.
  • For itemized information, use bullet points or numbered lists.
  • If necessary, include relevant details, explanations, or requests.
  • The tone you use should be professional, but you should adjust the formality according to the context and your relationship with the recipient.
  • Before sending your email, check it for spelling and grammar errors.
e. Closing

At the end of the email, there is a closing statement or signature. The most common email closings are “Sincerely,” “Best regards,” “Yours truly,” and “Kind regards In your email signature.

You should include your name as well as the title of your job, your company, and your contact information.

f. Attachments

You can attach files or documents to your email using the attachment feature of your email client. Explain in the body of your email what the attachments are and provide a brief description of each one.

You can include a link to the attachment if it’s too large to attach. If it’s a confidential document, you can use a secure file transfer service and include the password. Let the recipient know when the attachment will arrive.

g. Signature

In some cases, people include a preconfigured email signature at the end of their emails, which shows their name, title, company, and contact information. Your email client’s settings can be used to configure the email signature.

A signature allows you to provide contact information without having to type it in manually each time you send an email. Signatures can also enhance the professionalism of your emails and protect you from spammers.

Email etiquette is important. Be mindful of your tone, professionalism, and clarity, especially in professional settings. Well-written, properly formatted emails can enhance communication and leave a favorable impression on recipients.

Purpose of Email

The purpose of email can be found in both personal and professional contexts. Here are six detailed purposes:

Purpose of Email

a. Communication

A primary purpose of email is to facilitate communication between individuals, groups, or organizations.

People can use email to exchange messages, ideas, and information quickly and efficiently, regardless of geographical distance. It is a fundamental tool for both personal and professional communication.

b. Information Sharing

Email is a powerful tool for distributing information of all types, including documents, reports, photos, videos, links, and more.

Users can attach files to emails or include links to external resources, making it a versatile tool for distributing information to one or more recipients.

c. Collaboration

Email plays a key role in collaborative efforts within an organization. Team members can use it to discuss projects, communicate updates, coordinate tasks, and provide feedback.

In addition, it contributes to project success by keeping them informed and aligned.

d. Scheduling and Coordination

Meetings, appointments, and events are commonly scheduled through email. Users can send calendar invitations and receive RSVPs through email, making it easier to organize and coordinate activities.

It is common to integrate shared calendars and scheduling apps with email systems so that this process can be streamlined.

e. Documentation and Record Keeping

Email is an excellent tool for documenting conversations and decisions. Individuals and organizations can keep a record of important communications by archiving them.

It can be useful for legal, historical, and reference purposes. In addition to resolving disputes, this documentation can clarify past agreements.

f. Marketing and Promotion

In the business world, email is a powerful tool for marketing and promotion. Businesses use email marketing campaigns to reach a wide audience with product updates, newsletters, special offers, and promotional content.

Email marketing allows businesses to engage with their customers and drive sales.

Email is an important and versatile communication tool, but it should be used thoughtfully and according to best practices. When using email for a variety of purposes, it is important to follow proper email etiquette, protect sensitive information, and manage email overload.

Informality of E-Mail

In an email, informality varies greatly depending on the context, the relationship between the sender and the recipient, and the purpose of the communication. Here are  detailed exploration of informality of email:

Informality of E-Mail

a. Formal Email

In formal emails, the sender usually maintains a professional relationship with the recipient. These emails are usually sent to supervisors, colleagues, clients, or other people with whom the sender has a distant or professional relationship.

In formal emails, the tone is polite, respectful, and professional. Language and vocabulary are formal, and greetings and closings follow standard protocol.

Emails often begin with salutations like “Dear Mr. Smith,” “Hello Dr. Johnson,” or “Good morning/afternoon/evening.” If known, the recipient’s last name and title are included.

Formal emails typically contain business-related content, such as reports, proposals, inquiries, or official communications. Personal or informal language is rarely used.

There is careful attention paid to grammar and punctuation, and abbreviations are used sparingly. An email signature usually includes the sender’s full name, title, company, and contact information.

Semi-formal Email

Semi-formal emails are usually sent to acquaintances, colleagues with whom the sender has a closer relationship, or for business correspondence requiring some degree of familiarity.

A semi-formal email strikes a balance between professionalism and informality. Language is a bit looser, but respect and courtesy are maintained.

Common salutations include “Hello [First Name],” “Hi [First Name],” and “Dear [First Name]”. Semi-formal emails can include both business-related content and personal or friendly elements, such as small talk and expressions of appreciation.

Although proper grammar and punctuation are still important, semi-formal emails may allow a bit more flexibility. Semi-formal emails often have a signature that includes the sender’s name, title, and contact information. Semi-formal emails often have a signature that includes the sender’s name, title, and contact information.

c. Informal Email

Friends, family, colleagues, and individuals with whom the sender has a personal and friendly relationship are typically the recipients of informal emails.

Emails written in an informal tone tend to be relaxed, friendly, and casual. Language is often conversational, and humor and slang are often used. Emails with informal greetings can begin with “Hey,” “Hi [First Name],” or simply with the recipient’s name.

Personal matters, casual conversations, sharing anecdotes, and social updates can all be covered in informal emails.

While basic grammar rules are still followed, informal emails have more flexibility, and occasional informal language may be accepted. Emails sent informally may have a minimal or even absent signature, since the sender and recipient are assumed to be close friends.

Adapting the level of informality of your emails to match the context and the expectations of the recipient is crucial. You should always consider the recipient’s preferences and your relationship with them when composing emails to strike the right tone to avoid misunderstandings or a perception of unprofessionalism.


A memorandum, commonly known as a memo, is a concise written communication used in various professional settings to convey information, make requests, provide updates, or share decisions within an organization.

A memo is usually shorter and more focused than a report or letter, and serves as a convenient and formal way of communicating internally. Our comprehensive guide to memoranda covers its key components, purpose, and best practices for effective communication in detail.

Purpose of Memorandum

It is essential to understand the primary purpose of a memorandum. Here is detailed explanation of its primary purpose:

a. Internal Communication

An organization’s memos are primarily used to communicate internally between departments or teams. They provide employees with important information, instructions, policies, updates, and decisions.

Memos are formal documents, so they need to be concise and clear. They should also be written in a way that makes them easy to interpret and act upon. Lastly, they should include a clear and concise call to action.

b. Documentation

 Memos can serve as a form of documentation. They record significant events, decisions, or discussions for future reference, which can be valuable for legal and historical purposes. You can also use memos to keep track of project and program progress.

Finally, memos can be used to document the resolution of disputes or conflicts. They enable timely communication and can ensure that everyone is on the same page.

c. Formal Communication

Memos provide a formal and structured way to convey information, ensuring clarity and professionalism. In addition to providing evidence of what was agreed to or said, memos can also be used as a tool to prevent misunderstandings or disputes.

Additionally, memos can serve as a record of decisions and actions taken, which can help to ensure that everyone is held accountable for their actions.

Format of Memorandum

There are several key components of a memorandum, each serving a distinct purpose. Here is a breakdown of these components:

Format of Memorandum

a. Heading

Memoranda begin with the heading, which includes the following elements:

i. To:

This indicates the recipient(s) of the memo. Include their names and titles. Include the group name if the memo is addressed to multiple recipients.

However, if the memo is addressed to a large group, include the group name. Include the names of any individuals responsible for taking action, as well as the recipients’ addresses.

ii. From

As with the “To” section, you can list multiple senders vertically if needed. Include your name and title and identify the sender(s) of the memo.

You can also include the address of the sender(s) or the company they represent. In this way, the recipient can identify who to contact for any questions or inquiries.

iii. Date

This date indicates the date when the memo was issued. It helps establish a timeline and is essential for references. It is also useful to track any changes that may have occurred over time, or to identify previous versions of the memo.

Further, it allows the recipient to determine if the memo is up-to-date or if it has been superseded or outdated quickly.

iv. Subject

A brief, descriptive title that summarizes the memo’s content, as well as providing recipients with a clear understanding of the memo’s purpose.

b. Opening

It is usually a brief section that introduces the memo’s main points. The purpose of the memo, any important background information the reader may need to understand the rest of the memo.

The writer’s name and job title should also be included. It can include a sentence or two to provide context.

c. Body

In the body of the memo, the main content is presented. It should be structured and well-organized, with clear headings and subheadings.

In order to make the content easier to digest, use short paragraphs and bullet points whenever possible. Provide information logically, starting with the most important points first and providing supporting details later.

Avoid unnecessary jargon or overly technical language, be concise and to the point, and use proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling throughout the memo.

e. Conclusion

The conclusion section summarizes the key points made in the body of the memo. Conclusion can also provide a clear call to action if the memo requires the recipients to take specific steps or make decisions.

The conclusion should also contain recommendations or solutions to address the issue raised in the memo. It is essential that the recommendation be concrete, actionable, and provide enough information for the reader to make an informed decision.

f. Closing

Thank the recipients for their attention or cooperation in the closing section. Please provide your contact information so recipients can get in touch with you if they have any questions.

Thank them for their support and let them know you enjoyed working with them. End with a sincere closing statement like “Thank You” or “I look forward to hearing from you soon.”

g. Attachments or Enclosures

If there are any additional documents or materials related to the memo, mention them in this section and attach them to the memo.

If necessary, include any attachments or enclosures in the memo. Before sending it to the recipient, ensure the document is free of errors and keep a copy for future use.

Best Practices for Writing a Memorandum

Some of the best practices for writing a Memorandum are as following:

Best Practices for Writing a Memorandum

a. Clarity and Conciseness

Use clear and straightforward language to convey your message in a memorandum to ensure effective communication. Keep your sentences concise to prevent confusion. Avoid overly complex vocabulary or jargon that might confuse readers.

Avoid unnecessary words and long-winded explanations. Memos should be brief and straightforward. A vague or ambiguous message can lead to misunderstandings.

For example, instead of saying, “We must optimize our operational efficiency to boost productivity,” you could write, “To boost productivity, we must enhance operational efficiency

b. Relevance

To maintain the reader’s focus and make your memo impactful, make sure your memo’s content is relevant. Stick to the memo’s main topic and purpose. The most important information should appear at the beginning of the memo.

This will ensure recipients grasp the key points even if they don’t read the entire document. Avoid including unrelated information or going off on tangents.

For instance, in a memo about a new project, concentrate on project details and avoid discussing unrelated topics.

c. Professional Tone

In a memo, it is important to maintain a professional tone, as it is a form of communication within an organization. Use formal language and avoid colloquialisms and slang.

Address recipients by their appropriate titles and use respectful language. Avoid expressing personal opinions or frustrations in the memo. Stick to facts.

For example, Instead of writing, “I think it’s a bad idea,” you can write, “It may not be advisable

d. Formatting and Structure

Use a consistent formatting style for headings, subheadings, fonts, font sizes, margins, and spacing throughout your memo to enhance readability and understanding.

The content should be divided into digestible sections with headings and, when appropriate, numbered or bulleted lists. Paragraphs should be short and focused. A paragraph should cover a single idea or point.

An example would be to present project updates in a status memo using clear headings and bullet points.

e. Proofreading

You need to proofread your memo carefully so that it is free of errors, which can undermine its credibility. Look for grammar, spelling, and punctuation mistakes.

Even minor mistakes can distract readers and decrease the professionalism of the memo. Make sure your writing is clear. Also, verify if you have used consistent terminology and formatting throughout the memo and that sentences and phrases are well-structured and make sense.

For instance, make sure your memo is proofread carefully so that you correct errors like “loose” instead of “lose,” or “their” instead of “there

f. Attachments

Please ensure that attachments and additional documents are well-organized and appropriately labeled when referencing them in your memo. Also, provide context for why they are included in the memo by clearly stating that there are attachments or enclosures.

It is important to label attachments with meaningful names or titles to make them easier to identify. To ensure clarity, number or list attachments if there are multiples.

For instance, If your memo refers to a budget spreadsheet, label it “Budget Spreadsheet – Q3 2023

g. Distribution

The memo will reach the right recipients and serve its intended purpose if it is distributed effectively. Include names and titles in the “To” section of the memo.

Include additional individuals only for information purposes by using the “CC” (carbon copy) or “BCC” (blind carbon copy) fields. Be selective about who receives the memo. Don’t overload people with irrelevant data.

As an example, if the memo is only relevant to the marketing department, address it to “Marketing Team” and CC others as necessary.

h. Follow up

Providing clear instructions and setting expectations is critical when your memo requires specific actions or responses from recipients. Use action-oriented language to convey what needs to be done.

This creates an urgency and accountability sense as you clearly state tasks and expectations. Specify deadlines for actions or responses. In case recipients have further questions, include your contact information.

For example, rather than stating, “We need feedback soon,” state, “We would appreciate your feedback on the proposal by [the specific date]. If you have other questions, feel free to contact [Your Name] at [Your Email]

Implementing these eight best practices will allow you to create memos that are not only well-structured and clear, but also effective communication tools within your organization.

Difference between Email and Memorandum

A memo and an email are both written forms of communication, but they differ significantly in format, purpose, audience, and delivery. Here are some key differences:

Basis of Difference




In email, digital messages are sent electronically and are typically composed using email software or applications. They are delivered directly to recipients’ inboxes. Moreover, emails can include various formatting options, including fonts, colors, and attachments. Emails are usually structured more casually.

Memos, short for memorandums, are usually physical documents or digital documents formatted in a manner that resembles a letter. Memos usually include headings , body text, and sometimes attachments. They are usually printed and distributed within an organization.


It can be used to send messages, documents, requests, updates, or even personal correspondence. Emails can also be used both internally and externally, and are often used for fast, real-time communication.

As the name implies, memos are used for internal communication within an organization. Because, they are typically more formal and can convey information, policy changes, updates, and reports within the company. Memos can also serve as documentation for future reference.


A wide range of recipients can receive an email, including colleagues, clients, suppliers, as well as external contacts. Email can also  be sent to individuals or to small groups.

As a rule, memos are intended for a specific department or group within an organization. They are usually addressed to a defined set of recipients.


The primary method of fast communication and discussion is the email. Emails are delivered electronically to recipients’ inboxes and can be sent instantly, and recipients can reply in real-time.

Memos can be distributed physically by printing and distributing hard copies within the organization, or they can be shared digitally via email or other internal communication channels. Unlike emails, memos are usually distributed in a formal manner and may not be as instantaneous as them.

Response and Interactivity

In email, recipients are able to reply, forward, or engage in a discussion within the email thread. They are highly interactive and ideal for ongoing communication.

As opposed to emails, memos are one-way communications. While  recipients can provide feedback or ask questions separately, memos themselves are static documents with little interactivity.

Length and Detail

A single email can consist of a short message or a longer report or attachment, depending on the communication needs of the recipient.

Memos are typically concise and focused documents that provide essential information quickly. Detailed reports or additional information may be attached as separate documents.


An email can be informal or formal, depending on the context and your relationship with the recipient. Emails are often used both casually and professionally.

In general, memos are more formal in tone and structure. They are expected to adhere to a standardized format and are used for announcements, policy updates, and other important information.

Emails and memos serve as important tools for workplace communication, but their format, purpose, audience, and formality differ. Also, It depends on the nature of the message, the intended audience, and the level of formality required to communicate effectively whether to use an email or memo.

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