An important aspect of dramaturgy is that it is commonly used to explain micro-sociological accounts of daily social interactions. Goffman first applied the term to sociology from the theatre in his 1956 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, which developed most of the associated terminology and ideas. It was Burke who first presented his notions of dramatism in 1945, which in turn derived from Shakespeare, which Goffman later acknowledged as a source. Burke’s idea of life as theatre is fundamentally different from Goffman’s in that Burke believes life is a theatrical performance, while Goffman sees theatre as a metaphor. Goffman called dramaturgical analysis, the study of social interaction in terms of performance in the theatre, what we do if we see ourselves as directors observing what goes on in everyday life as theatre.
The elements of human interactions are dependent on time, place, and audience, according to dramaturgical sociology.According to Goffman, the self is a sense of who one is, a dramatic effect of the immediate moment. The manner in which one human being presents itself to another based on cultural values, norms, and beliefs is referred to by Goffman as a theatrical metaphor. Occasionally, performances can be disrupted (actors are aware of this), but most are successful.A carefully conducted performance is the key to this self-presentation. By succeeding, the actor will be seen as he or she wishes to be seen by the audience.Dramaturgical actions are social acts that are designed to be seen by others and improve public image. Other authors who have used this concept, in addition to Goffman, include Jürgen Habermas and Harold Garfinkel.
Typically, dramaturgy is employed to describe social interaction in everyday life from a micro-sociological perspective. Erving Goffman adapted the term into sociology from the theatre in his 1956 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Goffman acknowledged in later years that Kenneth Burke was an influence when he presented his notions of dramatism in 1945, which in turn were derived from Shakespeare. Burke’s view is fundamentally different from Goffman’s because Burke saw life as a play through a theater lens, while Goffman viewed it as a metaphor. In observing what happens in everyday life in terms of theatrical performance, we are doing what Goffman called dramaturgical analysis, the study of social interaction as a form of dramatic performance. Time, place, and audience are said to affect elements of human interactions in dramaturgical sociology.
In other words, to Goffman, the self is a sense of who one is, a dramatic effect emerging from the immediate scene being presented. By describing the method by which one human being presents himself to another according to cultural values, norms, and beliefs, Goffman uses a theatrical metaphor. The majority of performances are successful (actors are aware of such disruptions). In this performance, the intent is to gain the audience’s acceptance through carefully conducted performance. A successful actor will be viewed as he or she would like to be viewed by the audience. Dramaturgical actions are social actions performed to improve one’s public image and to be seen by others.
Which one of the following is part of the horizontal axis of dramaturgy?