ERP system modules | Enterprise Resource Planning | Management of Technology | Management Notes
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a business process management software that allows an organization to use a system of integrated applications to manage the business and automate many back-office functions related to technology, services, and human resources.
In an organization, ERP helps to manage the business processes of various departments and functions through a centralized application. We can make all the major decisions by screening the information provided by ERP. Depending upon the need and requirements of the organization’s integrated and customized ERP system is formed.
a) Customer Relationship Management Module(CRM):
CRM module helps to manage & track detailed information of the customer like communication history, calls, meetings, details of purchases made by customers, contract duration, etc. CRM department is helping to boost the sales performance through better customer service & establishing a healthy relationship with customers.
b) Human Resource Module(HR):
Human Resource module helps to the HR team for efficient management of human resources. HR module helps to manage employee information, track employee records like performance reviews, designations, job descriptions, skill matrix, time & attendance tracking.
One of the important sub-modules in the HR module is Payroll System which helps to manage salaries, payment reports, etc. It can also include Travel Expenses & Reimbursement tracking. Employee Training tracking can also be managed by ERP.
c) Finance & Accounting module:
Whole inflow & outflow of money/capital is managed by the finance module. This module keeps track of all account-related transactions like expenditures, Balance sheet, account ledgers, budgeting, bank statements, payment receipts, tax management, etc. Financial reporting is an easy task for this module of ERP. Any Financial data that is required for running a business is available on one click in Finance module.
d) Inventory Module:
Inventory module can be used to track the stock of items. Items can be identified by unique serial numbers. Using that unique numbers inventory system can keep track of items and trace its current location in the organization. e.g. you have purchased 100 hard disks, so using an inventory system you can track how many hard disks are installed, where they are installed, how many hard disks are remaining, etc. Inventory module includes functionalities like inventory control, master units, stock utilization reporting, etc. There may be an integration of the inventory module with the purchase module of ERP.
e) Sales module in ERP :
Typical sales process includes processes like Sales queries & inquiry analysis & handling, quotation drafting, accepting sales orders, drafting sales invoices with proper taxation, dispatch/Shipment of material or service, tracking pending sales order. All these sales transactions are managed by the sales module of ERP. CRM module can take the help of the Sales module for future opportunity creation & lead generation.
f) Purchase Module:
Purchase modules take care of all the processes that are part of the procurement of items or raw materials that are required for the organization. Purchase module consists of functionalities like supplier/vendor listing, supplier & item linking, sending quotation requests to vendors, receiving & recording quotations, analysis of quotations, preparing purchase orders, tracking the purchase items, preparing GRNs(Good Receipt Notes) & updating stocks & various reports. The purchase module is integrated with the Inventory module & Engineering/production module for updating stocks.
g) Production module in ERP:
The production module in ERP is a great help for the manufacturing industry for delivering products.This module consists of functionalities like production planning, machine scheduling, raw material usage,(Bill of material)preparation, track daily production progress production forecasting & actual production reporting.
h) Supply Chain Management (SCM):
SCM module manages the flow of product items from manufacturer to consumer & consumer to manufacturer.
Common roles involved are manufacturer, Super Stockiest, Stockiest, distributors, retailers etc. SCM involves demand & supply management, sales returns & replacing process, shipping & transportation tracking etc.
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