Principles of Learning | Concept of Learning | General Psychology
Principles of Learning
Learning principles are the guidelines or ways that define how people learn more effectively. If the guidelines are followed in a proper manner then learning becomes more effective. The basic principles and guidelines to facilitate learning are given below.
Principles of Reinforcement
Reinforcement is concerned with encouraging repetition of learning behavior that gives positive outcomes and opportunities. When the response is followed by a desirable consequence, it is called positive reinforcement. Such behavior is repeated so it’s almost permanent learning with more proficiency. For example, payment of bonus and allowance, the share of profit for better performance leads to positive reinforcement.
Similarly, when the response is followed by withdrawal of an undesirable consequence, it is called negative reinforcement. Since it is not worth learning no repetition is done. For example, imposing a penalty, charge for ineffective performance is part of negative reinforcement.
Principle of Punishment
The concept of reward and punishment initiate learning among people. When people have a feeling of reward for good learning then it encourages them to learn new concepts, ideas, knowledge, and experience. If there is the provision of punishment for not involving in learning, it compels them to focus on learning. Management should know the learning behavior of the organization among subordinates.
Principle of Generalization
Generalization is concerned with getting knowledge of the new concepts, processes, technology and practicing new innovations with subordinates. It also concerns with the publication of new knowledge and experience innovated in newspapers and magazines for the knowledge of the public. Many professional managers and researchers are involved in the generalization of their innovation. It helps to involve in learning because it helps to maintain reputation in occupation and status of society.
Principle of Discrimination
The principle of discrimination is between learning by oneself and other people encouraging for learning. When managers make difference between learning and non-learning employee, it impacts learning. Employees will tend to learn. Managers can provide additional rewards and incentives to employees having intelligent and dedicated to the assigned jobs and discourage idle employees. In such a situation, idle employees are also psychologically forced to involve in learning for their existence in the organization.
Principle of Motivation
Motivation is a psychological aspect and it affects the learning process. When management encourages the employee for learning they involve in the generation of new concepts, ideas, knowledge, and skills. When independence is given to employees for accomplishment of assigned job, they do work full of dedication and a feeling of accountability. Management can motivate the employees in learning by providing both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards.
Principle of Repetition
Continuous practice makes a person perfect in the sector of knowledge. In the beginning, the individual feels difficult to accomplish a new task perfectly. When they practice tasks many times, they become perfect to accomplish tasks. Regular practice helps people to generate new knowledge in skill in the concerned area of function. They can generate new methods and procedures to meet changing expectations of society.
Principle of Active Involvement
Active involvement in the subject matter of learning also affects in learning trend. When people give full of mental and physical concentration in the learning process, they can be able to understand basic concept matter and procedure of completing it.
For example in the practical lab, the teacher demonstrates the concept and procedure of competing it, if students give full mental concentration on a demonstration they can understand the concept. If they have no mental and physical concentration they cannot understand the subject matter presented by the teacher.
Principle of Learning
Human psychologists found that human beings have a learning curve. Age factors affect learning. At a young age, people have an increasing trend of learning, they are the creative brain and mental skills. Similarly, increasing the age of people tends to decrease the learning curve. This is due to the declining memory capacity of people. In research, it is found that up to age of thirty-five, the learning trend of average people is at a straight increasing curve and after that learning curve increase but in decreasing trend.